Syzygites megalocarpus

Syzygites megalocarpus (Ehrenberg)

Phylum: Mucoromycota
Class: Mucoromycetes
Order: Mucorales
Family: Mucoraceae
Genus: Syzygites
Species: megalocarpus
Authority: Ehrenberg
Collection #: PLP847_2018_216
Locale: Rives Junction, MI

Figure 1 a) Habitat picture showing mixed hardwoods. b) Picture showing the S. megalocarpus growing off a decaying mushroom. c) Closer image showing the clusters of sporangia hanging to the ends of the hyphea. d) Microscopic image of a sporangium ith no spores. e) microscopic image showing sporangia covered with spores. 

This fuzzy parasitic fungus has been documented growing on over 65 different species of mushroom (Kuo, Syzygites Megalocarpus, n.d.). Occasionally called the Troll-Doll fungus, S. Megalocarpus forms long strands of hyphae prior to forming dichotomously branching sporangiophores which terminate with septated sporangia covered in 5-35 µm spores. As S. Megalocarpus matures, the color of the spores ranges from yellow to grey.

Sources:

Kovacs, R., & Sundberg, W. (1999). Syzygites megalocarpus (Mucorales, Zygomycetes) in Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science, 92: 181-190.

Kuo, M. (n.d.). Syzygites Megalocarpus.Retrieved from MushroomExpert.Com: https://www.mushroomexpert.com/syzygites_megalocarpus.html


Author: Bryan Rennick
Date Posted: 12-11-2018



Tuber floridanum

Tuber floridanum (Grupe, et al. 2018)

Phylum: Ascomycota
Class: Pezizomycetes
Order: Pezizales
Family: Tuberaceae
Genus: Tuber
Species: floridanum
Authority: Grupe, et. al. (2018)
Collection #: PLP847_2018_215
Locale: Eaton Rapids, MI

Figure 1: a) Exposed peridium of T. floridanum after heavy rain removed loose soil. b) Ascii containing two and three reticulated T. floridanum spores. c) Tuber floridanum resting amongst acorns from the host oak tree. This picture also shows the marbled gleba from inside the truffle. 

      This recently described truffle was found scattered amongst an oak-dominated forest from mid-Summer through late Fall when the first frosts began to set into the landscape of Mid-Michigan. Formerly known only as Tuber  sp. 47, the group which described this species was finding this truffle frequently in Florida and also noted its presence on pecan roots in a Brazil plantation (Grupe, 2018). 

      This truffle, as with all truffles, grows hypogeously below ground. When mature, it produces a distinct, almost nutty odor. The sandy-loam soils this truffle was found in have a pH of 7.5 and were recently disturbed by farm equipment. Truffles seen in Figure 1 only represents three of around 60 T. floridanum truffles found at this site in 2018. One of the close look-alikes to this truffle is T. arnoldianum which can be distinguished by the tenancy for T. arnoldianum ascospores to be longer (23–51 μm) than T. floridanum ascospores (18–47 μm)(Grupe, 2018). 

Sources:
Grupe II, A., Sulzbacher , M., Grebenc, T., Healy, R., Bonito, G., & Smith, M. (2018). Tuber brennemanii and Tuber floridanum: Two new Tuber species are among the most commonly detected ectomycorrhizal taxa within commercial pecan (Carya illinoinensis) orchards. Mycologia, 780-790.

Author: Bryan Rennick
Date Posted: 12-11-2018



Cortinarius iodes

Cortinarius iodes (Berkeley & M.A. Curtis)

Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Cortinariaceae
Genus: Cortinarius
Species: iodes
Authority: Berkeley & M.A. Curtis
Collection #: PLP847_2018_211
Locale: Dansville, MI

 

Cortinarius Iodes panel

Figure 1: a) Top view showing the spotted appearance of the pileus. b) Side view showing the convex shape and viscous texture of the pileus. c) Habitat surrounding this collection. d) Gill spacing distant and attachment is to stipe. e) Brown spore print on white paper. f) Group of spores ranging in length between 8 and 10µm.

This colorful addition to the forest floor is mycorrhizally associated with oak trees. A couple of common names for this mushroom are the viscid violet cort and the spotted cort. As the term viscid might suggest, this mushroom has a slimy cap surface best seen after a gentle rain. Frequently the cap of this mushroom appears with light colored spots as it matures. There are two seemingly identical species, C. iodes and C. iodeoides which can be differentiated by spore size and a bitter cap slime. 

SpeciesSpore DimentionsBitter Cap Slime
C. iodes8-10 x 5-6µmNo
C. iodeoides7-8 x 4-5µmYes

This mushroom was described by Miles Joseph Berkeley and Moses Ashley Curtis in 1853. Charles Horton Peck later described Cortinarius heliotropicus, but it was later understood to be the same species as C. iodes

Sources:

Binion, D. E., Burdsall Jr., H. H., Stephenson, S., Miller Jr., O., Roody, W., & Vasilyeva, L. (2008). Cortinariuis iodes. In D. E. Binion, H. H. Burdsall Jr., S. Stephenson, O. Miller Jr., W. Roody, & L. Vasilyeva, Macrofungi Associated With Oaks of Eastern North America (pp. 108-109). Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University Press.

Kuo, M. (n.d.). Cortinarius iodes. Retrieved from MushroomExpert.Com: https://www.mushroomexpert.com/cortinarius_iodes.html

Kuo, M., & Methven, A. S. (2014). Cortinarius iodeoides. In M. Kuo, & A. S. Methven, Mushrooms of the Midwest (p. 157). Urbana, Chicago, Springfield, Illinois: Univerity of Illinois Press.

Miller Jr., D. K., & Miller, H. H. (2006). Cortinarius iodes. In D. O. Miller Jr., & H. H. Miller, North American Mushrooms: A field Guide to Edible and Inedible Fungi (p. 320). Guilford, CT; Helena, MT.: Rowman & Littlefield.

Author: Bryan Rennick
Date Posted: 12-11-2018



Pleurotus pulmonarius

Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél. (1872)

Phylum:  Basidiomycota
Class:  Agaricomycotina
Order:  Agaricomycetes
Family:  Pleurotaceae
Genus: Pleurotus  
Species:  pulmonarius
Found on a dead oak tree in deciduous forest, East Lansing MI
    Pleurotus pulmonarius, commonly known as the Indian Oyster, Italian Oyster, Phoenix Mushroom, or the Lung Oyster, is a mushroom very similar to Pleurotus ostreatus, the pearl oyster, but with a few noticeable differences. The caps of P. pulmonarius are much paler and smaller than ostreatus and develops more of a stem. P. pulmonarius also prefers warmer weather than ostreatus and will appear in late summer. P. pulmonarius is widespread in temperate and subtropical forests throughout the world. In the eastern United States, this species is generally found on hardwoods while in the west it is commonly found on conifers. P. pulmonarius is the most cultivated Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus) species in Europe and North America. The most popular varieties for cultivation are the warm weather varieties.  P. pulmonarius has a pale white, lung-shaped to semicircular cap that ranges from (2 to 12 cm) broad with a wide ranging width of (1 to 7 cm) . The white, close to nearly distant gills are decurrent if there is a stem. P. pulmonarius has a white to grayish to lilac spore print, and grows in shelf-like clusters on dead and living wood of hardwoods
    There are some possible medicinal compounds to be found within P. pulmonarius. The compound of interest is a polysaccharide called β-D-Glucan extracted from P. pulmonarius and has been shown to reduce sensitivity to pain in mice and is being further developed as an analgesic. In a different study on mice, a glucan from P. pulmonarius showed potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.
Author: Drew Glassbrook
Date Posted: 12-06-2018



Helvella crispa

 Helvella crispa (Scop.) Fr. (1822)

Phylum:  Ascomycota
Class: Pezizomycetes
Order: Pezizales
Family: Helvellaceae
Genus: Helvella
Species: crispa
Helvella crispa beneath White Birch, Lansing MI

Helvella crispa beneath White Birch, Lansing MI

 

Helvella crispa, also known as the white saddle, elfin saddle or common helvel, is an ascomycete fungus of the Helvellaceae family. The mushroom is readily identified by its irregularly shaped whitish cap, fluted stem, and fuzzy undersurfaces. It is found in eastern North America and in Europe, near deciduous trees in summer and autumn.The fungus was originally described as Phallus crispus by the naturalist Scopoli in 1772. In Latin the adjective crispa means  ‘wrinkled’ or ‘curly’.
Helvella crispa is creamy white to beige in color, 6–13 cm (2½–5 in) in length, with a cap that is 2–5 cm in diameter. It is striking due to its irregularly shaped lobes on the cap, but with a robust creamy-white to deeper beige at the base (2–8×1–2.5 cm in size). Its tissue brittle and breaks easily. The stem is 3–10 cm (1¼–4 in) long, white, tan, or slightly pink in color and dramatically ribbed. It gives off a pleasant aroma, but is not edible raw. The spores are white, and oval with an average size of 19 x 11.5 μm. Occasionally white capped forms are found.
Author: Drew Glassbrook
Date Posted: 12-06-2018



Rhizopus stolonifer

Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehrenb.) Vuill.

Phylum: Mucoromycota

Class: Mucoromycetes

Order: Mucorales

Family: Rhizopodacae

Genus: Rhizopus

Species: stolonifer

 

Rhizopus stolonifer is one of the important members in Mucoromycota and they are commonly known as ‘bread molds’. This fungus is widely distributed but commonly found in tropical and subtropical regions.

R. stolonifer can colonize on various substrates and some of them are bread, fruits (strawberries and other berries), vegetables, soil, and air. During the infection of fruits, the fruit surface first becomes soften followed by leaking from the fruit surface. Finally, the fruit is covered with wispy, fuzzy black and white mycelia of the pathogen (Figure 1). The colonies are white in PDA and V8 media and the colonies have black heads at the end due to sporulation.

The common feature of identification of Rhizopus group is rhizoids. Unlike other members of Rhizopus group, R. stolonifer has complex, well developed rhizoids (Figure 2). The sporangiophores are 1-3 mm long and 20-25 µm in diameter. Columella and sporangiospores are attached to the sporangiophore. Spoangiospores are 150- 250 x 275-300 µ and they are angular- subglobose to ellipsoidal in shape (Figure 3). Generally, the columella is half of the sporangial height. The sexual reproduction of R. stolonifer occurs by fusing the two gametangia and it results zygospores (Figure 4). The sexual reproduction of R. stolonifer takes place during unfavorable conditions.

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Figure 1: Infection of strawberry by Rhizopus stolonifer

 

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Figure 2: Rhizoids of Rhizopus stolonifer

 

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Figure 3: Microscopic features of Rhizopus stolonifer having sporangia, sporangiophores and sporangiospores

 

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Figure 4: The sexual reproduction of R. stolonifer 

References:

  • Schipper, M. A. 1984. A revision of the genus Rhizopus The Rhizopus stolonifera group and Rhizopus oryzae. Studies Mycol. 25:1-19.
  • http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/2011/olbrantz_chri/classification.htm
Author: Malini Jayawardana
Date Posted: 12-03-2018



Coprinellus micaceus

Coprinellus micaceus (Bull.) Vilgalys, Hopple & Jacq. Johnson

 

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Psathyrellaceae

Genus: Coprinellus

Species: micaceus

Coprinellus micaceus belongs into family Psathyrellaceae and widely distributed in North America. They are commonly known as ‘mica cap’, ‘shiny cap’ and ‘inky caps’. They grow as clusters on or near rotting hardwood tree stumps (Figure 1). Sometimes they grow around underground tree roots giving mushrooms a ‘terrestrial’ like habitat. C. micaceus have honey brown, tawny or amber colored caps. The size of the cap varies from 2-15 cm and sometimes the cap margin may curl up. The early stages of this mushroom have fine mica-like granules on the caps and they can be easily detached from caps. The shape of the cap may vary from oval to bell shape depending on their maturity level.  The gills are either attached to stem or free from it. The gills are initially pale brown but few hours after collecting, the gills soften and melting slowly by tuning into inky black color (Figure 2). C. micaceus has a thin, smooth, white stem with 2-8 cm long and 3-6 mm thick.

The spore print of C. micaceus is black (Figure 3).  It has smooth subelliptical to multiform 7-11 x 4-7 µ spores and spores have a central pore (Figure 4). C. micaceus has elliptical to ovoid pleurocyctedia and the size may vary from 150 x 70 µ. These pleurocyctedia project from gills and it gives protection to each gill by avoiding contact between two adjacent gills and it provides enough space to develop basidia and spores.

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Figure 1: The growth of C. micaceus on/near wood stumps

 

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Figure 2: Gills turning into inky black color in C. micaceus

 

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Figure 3: The spore print of C. micaceus

 

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Figure 4: The spores of C. micaceus

Reference:

  • Kuo, M. (2008, February). Coprinellus micaceus.Retrieved from the Com Web site:  http://www.mushroomexpert.com/coprinellus_micaceus.html.
  • Roody WC (2003). Mushrooms of West Virginia and the Central Applications. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. p. 156.
Author: Malini Jayawardana
Date Posted: 11-30-2018



Rhytisma acerinum

Phylum: Ascomycota
Class: Leotiomycetes
Order: Rhytismales
Family: Rhytismataceae
Genus: Rhytisma
Epithet: acerinum
Authority: (Pers.) Fr.
Collection #: PLP847_2018_175
Locale: Jackson County, Michigan

 

Tar spot of maple is a common sight in Michigan. It can be recognized by black spots on the leaves of Maple trees that have the appearance of tar (thus the common name). Fortunately, the disease is mostly cosmetic and causes little real health issues for the tree. Late in the season, some leaves can drop due to the infection, but the numbers are generally small and do minimal harm to the tree.

Tar spot is caused by Rhytisma acerinum and two other closely related species, R. americanum and R. punctatum. R. americanum causes tar spot on Norway maples, while R. acerinum and R. punctatum are found on Red and Silver maple. R. puntatum causes large numbers of large spots, while R. acerinum causes fewer, larger spots.

Figure 1. Maple tar spot caused by Rhytisma acerinum

R. acerinum is in the phylum Ascomycota and forms sterile fungal tissue, called stroma, inside the leaf tissue. Apothecia are formed within these stroma and give rise to brown-black lesions that resemble spots of tar. The apothecia overwinter on plant debris and release ascospores when weather warms up in the spring.

Figure 2. Maple leaf showing the presence of stroma of Rhytisma acerinum.

Conidiophores are also produced during the summer months that form non-infectious conidia. Since the conidia do not appear to cause additional infections, it is uncertain as to why they are produced.

Figure 3. Non-infectious conidia of Rhytisma acerinum recovered from maple leaf.

Tar spot can be managed by removing infected leaves in the fall. Composting is generally insufficient to destroy the spores, as most home composting does not reach a high enough temperature. Leaves should be burned or removed to a municipal composting pile. Fungicides, particularly copper, can be used to help with control, but since the affected trees have low economic value, this practice is rarely employed.

Figure 4. Archicarps of Rhytisma acerinum in the tissue of a maple leaf.

Reference: Jones, S.G. (1925). Life-history and cytology of Rhytisma acerinum (Pers.) Fries. Annals of Botany, 39: 41-75.

By: Doug Minier

Author: Douglas Minier
Date Posted: 11-28-2018



Mycena leaiana

Mycena leaiana (Berk.) Sacc.

 

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Mycenaceae

Genus: Mycena

Species: leaiana

 

Mycena leaiana belongs into family Mycenaceae. It is commonly known as “orange mycena” or “Lea’s mycena”. The distinguished features of this species are bright orange colored caps with orange stipes. They are considered as saprobes of deadwood of hardwood and usually grow as dense clusters on deadwood (Figure 1).

Mycena leaiana has an oval or bell shaped 1-4 cm cap. Both cap and stipes are yellow color when they are young and then it turns in to dull yellow or white color with maturity. Moreover, the caps and stipes are sticky when they are wet.  They have hollow 3-7 cm long stems. M. leaiana is a gilled mushroom and gills are attached closely and crowded to the stem. Gills are orange at the edge and faces are light yellow to cream color (Figure 1).

The spore print of M. leaiana is white (Figure 2). The spores are elliptical, and the size of the spore is 7-10 x 5-6 µ (Figure 3). It has cheilocystidia with 40 x 15 µ and the shape can be variable from fusiod-ventricose to irregular. M leaiana is closely related to Mycena texensis but the two species can be differentiated by brownish to grey colored caps and the smaller spore size in M. texensis (4.5 x 6 µ).

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Figure 1: M. leaiana growing as clusters on deadwood

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Figure 2: The spore print of M. leaiana         

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Figure 3: The spores of M. Leaiana

References:

  • Kuo, M. (2010, December). Mycena leaiana.Retrieved from the Com Web site:  http://www.mushroomexpert.com/mycena_leaiana.html
  • Hanchett, S. A. (1904). North American species of Mycena. University of Michigan Herbarium Fungus Monographs
Author: Malini Jayawardana
Date Posted: 11-28-2018



Podosphaera erigerontis-canadensis

Phylum: Ascomycoya
Class: Leotiomycetes
Order: Erysiphales
Family: Erysiphaceae
Genus: Podosphaera
Epithet: erigerontis-canadensis
Authority: (Lev) U. Braun & T.Z. Liu
Collection #: PLP847_2018_174
Locale: Ingham County, Michigan

Powdery mildews are caused by fungi in the order Erysiphales, which contains only a single family, Erysiphaceae. An estimated 7600 plant species are affected by the nearly 700 species of powdery mildew that are classified in 15 genera (1). Powdery mildew pathogens are obligate parasites, which mean they need a living host to grow and reproduce. In order to extract nutrients from the plant tissues, the fungus produces specialized structures called haustoria that intrude into the plant cell (Fig. 1).

Figure 1. Haustoria inside the cells of a dandelion leaf.

Podosphaera erigerontis-canadensis causes powdery mildew on dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). As with all powdery mildews, it is characterized by white powdery mycelium covering the leaf surface (Fig. 2). Microscopic features are required to identify to genus and species.

Figure 2. Dandelion leaves covered with white mycelium.

Microscopic characteristics: Chasmothecia (60-80 μm) are subglobose, mostly unadorned and contain a single ascus (Fig 3a). Asci are ellipsoid-ovid, 50-75 μm with a characteristic small (8-15 μm) terminal oculus (Fig 3b). Conidia (25-35 x 14-19 μm) form in chains of up to 8 spores (Fig 4).

Figure 3. (a) Chasmothecia with a single ascus emerging. (b) Ascus filled with ascospores. Ascus is characterized by small oculus and short stalk.

Figure 4. Conidiophores with conidia.

 

References

1. Glawe, D.E. and Grove, G.G. (n.d.). Powdery Mildew Diseases. Pacific Northwest Pest Management Handbooks. Oregon State University. https://pnwhandbooks.org/plantdisease/pathogen-articles/common/fungi/powdery-mildew-diseases

Braun & Cook (2012) Taxonomic Manual of the Erisphales (Powdery Mildews). CBS-KNAW Fungal Diversity Centere, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

By: Doug Minier

Author: Douglas Minier
Date Posted: 11-27-2018



Ropalospora chlorantha

Ropalospora chlorantha

The cliff overlook where this lichen was found

The fruiting bodies of the lichen

 

The needle like spores, although few and far between, are within the fruiting bodies.

This lichen grows on a rock. Cuz it’s awesome, lichens can also grow on metal structures, they’re coming for us. Lichen grow on a variety of substrate, they don’t really care and people can use them as decoration in terrariums and things almost like a moss. It’s hard to believe they can receive any nutrients from these sorts of substrates, but probably due to their close relationship with algae they can mange.

PLP847_2018_8

CollectionDate: 10-6-18

Collector: Anna Stouffer-Hopkins

Taxonomy:

Phylum: Ascomycota

Class: Ascomycetes

Order: Teloschistales

Family: Fuscideaceae

Genus_species: Ropalospora chlorantha

Genus: Ropalospora

Species: chlorantha

Authority: (Tuckerman) S. Ekman1848

Location:

Dane county, Wisconsin USA

Latitude: 43.1194° N

Longitude: 89.6864° W

Elevation: 297

Habitat: In a deciduous forest clearing on a small mountain cliff over looking soy bean fields

Substrate: Rock

Macro-Description: Tiny black dots( fruiting bodies) covering the rock with a green thallus

Micro-description: Needle like spores with a green thallus that is spread over the rock surface with black perithica interspersed with the thallus

This Species is not known to be in this part of Wisconsin but it is the only lichen in the key that has all of the characteristics of this lichen

Rationale for ID: Keyed out using morphology

 

Author: Anna Stouffer-Hopkins
Date Posted: 11-27-2018



Leucoagaricus americanus

Leucoagaricus americanus

This is a saprotrophic fungi that is often found in wood chips, suffice to say this is found in human landscaped areas. Mushroom expert .com says it can be found in forested areas “acting like it belongs there.” This particular specimen was found growing in an adorable clump outside of a Mcdonalds, it was an older specimen, based on the color of the fruiting bodies. Young specimens are lighter colored.

PLP847_2018_3

 CollectionDate: 9-16-18

Collector: Anna Stouffer-Hopkins

Taxonomy:

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Agaricaceae

Genus_species: Leucoagaricus americanus

Genus: Leucoagaricus

Species: americanus

 

Authority: (Peck) Vellinga 2000

Location:

Holt, Michigan USA

Latitude: 42.651603

Longitude: -84.529296

Elevation: 267 m

Habitat: Wood chips in a landscaped area

Substrate: Coming out of the ground/wood chips

Macro-Description: Brown, grown in a cluster, un attached gilled with
a stipe ring/veil, cap has wart like rings on the top

Micro-description: spores thick walled circular alone or clumped together. Two pronged basidios.

Rationale for ID: Keyed to species, morphology matches; detached gills, color and texture of the cap and the shape of the spores

 

References:

https://www.mushroomexpert.com/leucoagaricus_americanus.html

Author: Anna Stouffer-Hopkins
Date Posted: 11-27-2018



Uncinula necator( syn. Erysiphe necator)

Uncinula necator( syn. Erysiphe necator)

 

Within the chasmothica of this fungi is a bunch of asci, and in the asci there are many spores. This pathogen is a biotrophic fungi, that cannot live without the host. The leaves of the infected plant will be covered with white powder that is the fungi’s hyphae, the small black and brown dots on the leaves contain the ascospores. The hyphae and the chasmothica are visible to the naked eye.

PLP847_2018_5

Collector: Anna Stouffer-Hopkins

Taxonomy

Phylum: Ascomycota

Class: Leotiomycetes

Order: Erysiphales

Family: Erysiphaceae

Genus_species Uncinula necator( syn. Erysiphe necator)

Genus: Uncinula(Erysiphe)

Species: necator

Authority: Schweintz 1892

Location

Lansing, Michigan USA

Latitude: 42°45’17.5″N

Longitude: 84°32’17.5″W

Elevation: 267 m

 

 

Habitat: Grape vines growing on a chain link fence

Substrate: On living grape leaves

Macro-Description: White powder( mycelia ) covering the leaf surface with yellow-brown-black balls spread throughout (chasmothica containing the asci and spores)

Micro-description: Black/brown chasmothica whith ascii inside, and single celled elipsoid spores

Rationale for ID: Morphology match, and only one species known on grape in Michigan

 

References:

https://nt.ars-grin.gov/fungaldatabases/fungushost/fungushost.cfm

Author: Anna Stouffer-Hopkins
Date Posted: 11-27-2018



Stereum ostrea

Stereum ostrea

PLP847_2018_4

One of the false turkey tails. It resembles the ‘True turkey tail fungi’  Trametes versicolor, in that the cap is covered with algae and it grows horizontally out of rotting wood. This species and it’s very close look alike Stereum hirsutum can be distinguished by the size of the cap. S. ostrea has relatively large   caps. No spores could be found which is not uncommon. The bottom of this mushroom has no visible pores or gills, because it is actually a scum mushroom, that is just pretending to be a poly pore.

CollectionDate 9-16-18

Collector: Anna Stouffer-Hopkins

Taxonomy

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Russulales

Family: Stereaceae

Genus_species Stereum ostrea

Genus: Stereum

Species: ostrea

Authority: (Blume & T. Nees) Fries 1838

Location:

Dansville, Michigan USA

Latitude: 42.518485″N

Longitude: 84.322042″W

Elevation: 267 m

 

Habitat: Growing on a log in a wooded area hickory maple forest

Substrate: Growing on a dead log

Macro-Description: Green cap(from algae) 3.5-5cm side to side and 2.5-3.5 cm stipe to cap edge, no stipe, smooth underside

Micro-description: No spores found

Rationale for ID: Morphology matches, the size of the cap was used to distinguish this species from other Stereum species

 

References:

https://www.mushroomexpert.com/stereum_ostrea.html

 

 

Author: Anna Stouffer-Hopkins
Date Posted: 11-27-2018



Arcyria denudate

Arcyria denudate

Carnival Candy Slime Mold

The plasmodium with it’s fruiting bodies.

Tiny fruiting bodies (sporangia) resembling tiny loofah.

Close up of the fruiting bodies, some spores and ameba present but hard to view at this magnification.

 

Since slime molds (moulds) were once considered fungi, but are now not because they were discovered to be so much cooler, I wanted to include this one in my collection. These little fellows form spores that hatch into ameba that will go and eat decomposers, bacteria and other small organisms,  which is why these cute little fellows are found on decaying things. When two compatible ameba meet they will form a plasmodia, which is just one big multi-nucliate blob that goes around eating things, and either forms a resting body, sclerotia, or a fruiting body, sporangia. This species is found all over the globe, and as an FYI slim molds are kind of a way of life not really a phylogenetic grouping.

PLP847_2018_1 CollectionDate: 9-6-18

Collector: Anna Stouffer-Hopkins

Taxonomy

Phylum: Mycetozoa

Class: Myxomycetes

Order: Trichiida

Family: Trichiidae

Genus_species: Arcyria denudata

Genus: Arcyria

Species: denudata

 

Authority: (Linnaeus) Wettstein 1886 or Fries 1851

Location:

Haslett, Michigan

Latitude: 42.7687° N

Longitude: 84.3922° W

 

Habitat: Wooded area, oak and maple forest

Substrate: On rotting log

Macro-Description: Tiny red sponge like( resembling a loofah) ellipsoid on a black-brown stalk. Grouped together in an almost forest like bunching.    

Micro-description: Hyphae looking structure that resembles a tangled mass of vertebrate spines spores and ameba present

Rationale for ID: Color and fruiting body morphology match the species description

 

 

Refrences:

https://www.inaturalist.org/taxa/56262-Arcyria-denudata

http://ncrfungi.uark.edu/species/14_arcyriaDenudata/arcyriaDenudata.html

https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/lifesci/outreach/slimemold/facts/

Author: Anna Stouffer-Hopkins
Date Posted: 11-27-2018



Amanita citrina

Phylum: Basidomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Amanitaceae
Genus: Amanita
Epithet: citrina
Authority: Pers.
Collection #: PLP847_2018_171
Locale: Schoolcraft County, Michigan

Amanita citrina is known as the false death cap because of its resemblance to the lethal Amanita phalloides. Although A. citrina is not poisonous, its similarity to A. phalloides prohibits it from being considered edible. A. citrina can be distinguished from A. phalloides and A. bisporigera by the lack of a sack-like volva. The volva in A. citrina adheres tightly to the swollen base, rather than pulling away from it and forming a loose sack.

Macroscopic characters: The cap is 2.5-8 cm, pale yellow, broadly convex and sticky when fresh. Gills are free from the stem, creamy to yellowish with age. Stem 4-9 cm long with an abruptly bulbous base which is sometimes longitudinally chiseled. Persistent skirt-like ring is white to pale yellow and is sometimes hairy. Base has a whitish volva that adheres tightly and has a rim on the upper edge.

Microscopic characters: Spores 6.5-9 μm, globose, smooth, amyloid. basidia 4-spored, unclamped.

Ecology: Mycorrhizal with hardwoods and conifers and prefers sandy or silicate soils. Widely distributed east of the Rocky Mountains where it grows in scattered groups.

Edibility: Although this species is technically not toxic, its close resemblance to highly toxic species makes consumption extremely risky. It is not recommended to eat any Amanita species.

By: Doug Minier

Author: Douglas Minier
Date Posted: 11-27-2018



Lepiota cristata

Lepiota cristata (Bolton) P. Kumm.

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Agaricaceae

Genus: Lepiota

Species: cristata

Lepioata cristata is a widely distributed species in North America, Europe, Northern Asia and New Zealand and it is commonly known as ‘stinking parasol’. The common features of this species are flat, brownish scales on the cap, bald stem having fragile ring and a sharp odor.

L. cristata commonly grows in disturbed grounds (lawns, paths) and under the wood stumps (hardwood or conifer). It has 2-4 cm bell shaped cap. Mature species consist brownish scales arranging as concentric rings on the cap and the center of the cap remains bald and darker (Figure 1). L. cristata is a gilled mushroom and the gill arrangement is free from the stem. The stem of L. cristata is typically 3-7 cm long with a white fragile ring which may disappear at early stages and the basal mycelia are white. The spore print of L. cristata is white and spores are 5-8 x 2.5-4 µ. Theses spores are wedge shaped with a flattened bottom (Figure 2).

 

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Figure 1: L. cristata growing on disturbed ground

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Figure 2: The spores of L. cristata

References:

  • Kuo, M. (2015, October). Lepiota cristata.Retrieved from the Com Web site: http:// www.mushroomexpert.com/lepiota cristata.html
  • Akers, B. P. and Sundberg, W. J. (2001). Lepiotaceae of Florida, IV. Stenosporic species of Lepiota S. STR. Mycotaxon.LXXX:469-479
Author: Malini Jayawardana
Date Posted: 11-26-2018



Entoloma majaloides

The genus Entoloma is a diverse group of over 1000 species. Entoloma majaloides P.D. Orton is difficult to identify, as it shares the pale brown, shiny cap and angular spores of several other species. Literature on this genus is complex and generally disorganized. To my knowledge, there is no data regarding the distribution other than “rarely found in western Europe”.

The smell and taste are nondistinctive. The cap is usually 3-9 cm across and the stipe is brittle and 6-13 cm long. The angular spores measure 8×9 micrometers. In summary, there is not a lot of research on this species and without sequencing, identification is nearly impossible.

Figure 1. E. majaloides growing terrestrially in a grassy forest area.

 

Figure 2. Mixed forest habitat.

 

Figure 3. Angular spores of E. majaloides.

 

Taxonomy

Basidiomycota

Agaricomycetes

Agicales

Entolomataeae

Entoloma

majaloides

 

References

MycoBank Entoloma majaloides, Web. 18, November, 2018.  http://www.mycobank.org/BioloMICS.aspx?TableKey=14682616000000063&Rec=20403&Fields=All

Kuo, M. (2013, January). Entolomatoid mushrooms. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/entoloma.html

Author: Nikki Lukasko
Date Posted: 11-20-2018



Pholiota alnicola

Pholiota alnicola (Fries) Singer is a widely distributed saprophyte found on hardwoods and conifers throughout North America. This species is a bit of an outcast compared to the majority of Pholiota, belonging to the subgenus Flammula. Unlike most others, P. alnicola lacks the characteristic pleurocystidia and scales on its cap. The dull yellow mushroom has a convex cap measuring about 5 cm in diameter and has a stipe 4-8 cm long. The gills are a lighter yellow and attach to the stipe. The spores of P. alnicola are a dark rusty brown measuring 9×4 micrometers. Interestingly, its mycelium has high levels of antioxidant activity and its potential for dietary supplement production is being researched.

 

Figure 1. Clusters of P. alnicola growing at the base of an oak.

 

Figure 2. Mixed forest habitat and oak stump substrate.

 

Figure 3. P. alnicola spore print.

 

Figure 4. Spores of P. alnicola.

 

Taxonomy

Basidiomycota

Agaricomycetes

Agaricales

Strophariaceae

Pholiota

Flammula

alnicola

 

Reference

Asatiani, M. D., Elisashvili, V., Songulashvili, G., Reznick, A. Z., & Wasser, S. P. (2010). Higher basidiomycetes mushrooms as a source of antioxidants. In Progress in Mycology (pp. 311-326). Springer, Dordrecht.

Badalyan, S. M. (2003). Edible and medicinal higher basidiomycetes mushrooms as a source of natural antioxidants. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms5(2).

Kuo, M. (2007, November). Pholiota alnicola species cluster. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/pholiota_alnicola.html

Author: Nikki Lukasko
Date Posted: 11-19-2018



Tylopilus violatinctus T.J. Baroni & Both

Figure 1. Tylopilus violatinctus (specimen PLP847_2018_187) fruiting on soil in a hardwood forest dominated by oak (A). Cream colored spores turning brown with age (B). The stipe is white in color only near the attachment point and the rest of the stipe is light brown with tinge of purple, slightly reticulate and equal to clavate to slightly bulbous at base (B).

Tylopilus violatinctus (specimen PLP847_2018_187), a mycorrhizal Bolete, was found fruiting in a cluster on soil under a hardwood forest dominated by oak (Figure 1-A). The cap (7-12 cm wide) was glabrous, convex to plane, with a straight, entire to cremate margin. The cap color was light purple that bruised a darker shade of purple when handled. Pores were cream to buff in color turning brown with age, did not bruise and were depressed at the intersection with stipe. Stipe attachment was central to slightly eccentric and white in color only near the attachment point (Figure 1-B). The rest of the stipe (8 -110 cm) was light brown with maybe a tinge of purple, very slightly reticulate and equal to clavate, maybe slightly bulbous at base. Chemical reactions: Cap KOH amber and FeSO4 negative (Figure 2-C); Flesh yellow in FeSO4 with a faint blue ring around yellow stain (Figure 2-B).

Figure 2. In T. violatinctus pores do not bruise (A), flesh is yellow in FeSO4 with a faint blue ring around yellow stain (B) and KOH reaction on the cap is amber (C). Also, useful for field diagnostics is a bruising, a darker shade of purple, on the cap when handled (C).

Other notes: Taste is very bitter. Tylopilus violatinctus is one of four violate colored Boletes that occur in North American; the other violaceous species are T. plumbeoviolaceus (Snell & Dick) Singer, T. rubroubrunnes Mazar & Smith, and T. williamsii Singer & J. Garcia. Officially classified based on type species from New York state in 1998 T. violatinctus most similar, morphologically, to T. plumbeoviolaceus. However, the two species can be readily distinguished by the dark-purple colored stipe present in T. plumbeoviolaceus in contrast to the light-brown colored stipe of T. violantintcus, and the dark-purple brusing that occurs when the cap of T. violantintcus is handled (Figure 2-C).

Taxonomy: Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes, Boletales, Boletaceae, Tylopilus, violatinctus.

Reference:

Bessette, A.E., Roody, W.C. and Bessette, A.R. Boletes of Eastern North America. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, New York.

Baroni, T. J., & Both, E. E. 1998. Tylopilus violatinctus, a new species of Tylopilus for North America, with comments on other violaceous colored Tylopilus taxa. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, 36, 261-264.

 

 

 

Author: Doug Higgins
Date Posted: 11-19-2018



Amanita muscaria var. formosa

Amanita muscaria var. Formosa (Gonn. & Rabenh.) Sacc.

Ecology and Morphology: Amanita muscaria var. Formosa (Gonn. & Rabenh.) Sacc. is an ectomycorrhizal fungi that frequently forms associations with hardwoods (beech, maple, oak) and conifers such as pine. This variety of Amanita muscaria has a yellow to orange cap on which pieces of the universal veil still reside (also referred to as warts) (Figure 1). Spore print will be white. The stipe has a complete annulus that is very fragile as well as a vulva and bulbous base (Figure 2). Amanita muscaria var. Formosa can frequently be found around associated trees In the late summer to early fall. While Amanita muscaria var. geuessowii is typically the yellow variety of Amanita muscaria found in the U.S., our ITS sequence best matched with Amanita muscaria var. Formosa. Amanita muscaria var. Formosa is poisonous and should not be eaten.

 

Taxonomy:

Kingdom:  Fungi

Division: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Amanitaceae

Genus: Amanita

Species: muscaria var. formosa

 

Literature:

Kuo, M. (2013, April). Amanita muscaria var. guessowii. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/amanita_muscaria_guessowii.html

This image requires alt text, but the alt text is currently blank. Either add alt text or mark the image as decorative. Figure 2. Annulus of stipe clearly visible as well as part of vulva

This image requires alt text, but the alt text is currently blank. Either add alt text or mark the image as decorative. Figure 1. Top of cap with warts (universal veil remnants) clearly visible.

Author: Austin Mccoy
Date Posted: 11-19-2018



Phyllotopsis nidulans

Phyllotopsis nidulans (Pers.) Singer

Ecology and Morphology:  Phyllotopsis nidulans (Pers.) Singer, is a saprobic fungus that typically grows in overlapping clusters on recently dead trees. These fungi look very similar to Pleurotus ostreatus at first glance as both have a shell shaped basidiocarp, the margin of the fruiting body is curled towards the gills and no stipe is present. However, the hirsute basidiocarp and orange color distinguish this fungi from P. ostreatus. Likewise, Phyllotopsis nidulans will sometimes produce a foul smell when it is collected and unlike P. ostreatus, P. nidulans has a pink spore print. I did not notice a foul smell from my collection though. These fungi are not considered edible. Overall an interesting a beautiful fungus to find in the fall.

 

 

Taxonomy:

Kingdom:  Fungi

Division: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Tricholomataceae

Genus: Phyllotopsis

Species: P. nidulans

 

 

Literature:

Kuo, M. (2017, May). Phyllotopsis nidulans. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/phyllotopsis_nidulans.html

This image requires alt text, but the alt text is currently blank. Either add alt text or mark the image as decorative. Figure 1. Phyllotopsis nidulans in its natural habitat, decomposing a fallen tree.

 

This image requires alt text, but the alt text is currently blank. Either add alt text or mark the image as decorative. Figure 2. Close up and gill shot of Phyllotopsis nidulans. Notice the margin of the pileus and how it is curved towards the gills.

Author: Austin Mccoy
Date Posted: 11-19-2018



Clavaria fragilis

Clavaria fragilis (Holmskjord) Fries (syn = Clavaria vermicularis)

Ecology and Morphology: Clavaria fragilis (Holmskjord) Fries (syn = Clavaria vermicularis), also known as fairy fingers or white worm coral, is a saprobic coral fungi that can be commonly found on the forest floor  (Figure 1). Fruiting bodies grow in clusters, are unbranched and are slightly tan on the apex of the basidiocarp. Basidiocarps are thin, 1-5mm wide, and are easily broken (hence the species name). Basidiospores are smooth and ellipsoid. Hyphae do not have clamp connections. Overall a small coral fungi that contrasts with the forest floor and is hard to miss.

 

Taxonomy:

Kingdom:  Fungi

Division: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Clavariaceae

Genus: Clavaria

Species: fragilis

 

Literature:

http://www.mycobank.org/MB/182991

Kuo, M. (2007, April). Clavaria vermicularis. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/clavaria_vermicularis.html

This image requires alt text, but the alt text is currently blank. Either add alt text or mark the image as decorative. Figure 1. Clavaria fragilis growing in a cluster within its natural habitat.

Author: Austin Mccoy
Date Posted: 11-19-2018



Inonotus obliquus

Inonotus obliquus

Taxonomy

Kingdom:  Fungi

Division:  Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order:  Hymenochaetales

Family:  Hymenochaetaceae

Genus: Inonotus

Species: Inontus obliquus

 

Inonotus obliquus  (Acharius ex. Persoon) grows throughout the year mainly on birch trees. It is a parasitic fungus.  The spores enter under the bark then germinate and form hyphae. Eventually the hyphae grow in size and the force causes the bark to crack. It is easy to find on white birch trees because the fruiting body (sclerotium) is a black, hard mass of mycelium that is bursting out of the tree and appears as a canker or charcoal (Fig 1)  Inside the fruiting body it is a yellow/orange/brown color (Fig 2). When a drop of KOH is applied inside it will immediately turn the spot black where the KOH was deposited (Fig 3).  Inonotus obliquus is used to make tea because of the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties and is commonly known as Chaga tea.

 

Figure 3. Chemical reaction to application of KOH.

 

 

 

Figure 1. Inontus obliquus (PLP847_2018_288) protruding from a birch tree.

Figure 2. Inside of sclerotium.

 

References:

Kuo, M. (2016, January). Inonotus obliquus. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/inonotus_obliquus.html

 

Author:  Celeste Dmytryszyn

Author: Celeste Dmytryszyn
Date Posted: 11-19-2018



Phellodon alboniger (Peck) Banker

Figure 1: Phellodon alboniger (PLP847_2018_191) fruiting on soil beneath a mixed hardwood-conifer forest.

Phellodon alboniger (Peck) Banker is a mycorrhiza toothed fungus commonly found growing in association with conifers but is sometimes found under hardwood. Specimen PLP847_2018_191 was found growing gregariously in the soil beneath forest of mixed hardwoods and conifers (Figure 1). The cap is white and velvety with a gray underside. The flesh is leathery and consists of two layers. The upper layer, toward to apex of the cap, is lighter in color and spongy while the lower layer is black (Figure 2-A). Spines or teeth on the underside of the cap are decurrent, whitish but bruising brown and small (~3 mm). The stem thicker at the apex and colored dark brown (Figure 2-B). KOH test on the teeth is blue to blue black (Figure 2-C). Spore print is white and spores are globose with spines (Figure 2-D). There is a distinctive maple syrup smell especially prevalent in the dried specimen.

Other Notes: One possible lookalike is Hydenellum caerulem but an orange stem and brown spore print allow it to easy differentiated from P. alboniger. Also, P. niger is listed is almost identical in morphology but reported to have a shallower depression in the cap and darker color.

Figure 2: Two-part flesh with lighter colored and spongy flesh toward the apex and a darker layer beneath (A). Stem is dark colored with decurrent teeth (B). KOH test on the teeth is blue to blue black (C). Spores are globose with spines (D).

Taxonomy:

Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes, Thelephorales, Bankeraceae, Phellodon, alboniger

 

References:

Kuo, M. and Methven, A.S. 2014. Mushrooms of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press
Urbana, Chicago, and Springfield.

Kuo, M. (2009, April). Phellodon alboniger. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com
Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/ phellodon_alboniger.html

Author: Doug Higgins
Date Posted: 11-18-2018



Hydnum repandum Linnaeus

Figure 1 Hydnum repandum (PLP847_2018_184) growing gregariously in Michigan hardwood forest (A). The cap is orange and broadly (2-17 cm) convex to plane with a depression in the middle, margin is undulate (B). Flesh is thick, firm, brittle and white but bruising dark orange (C). This fungus is referred to as the “hedgehog mushroom” because of the teeth on the underside of the cap (D).

Hydnum repandum Linnaeus is a widely distributed mycorrhiza associated with hardwoods or conifers. Also known as the “hedgehog mushroom” the genus is grouped, despite being toothed, with the Cantharellales and likewise it is a choice edible. Mature fruiting bodies (summer and fall) appear alone or in clumps and produce dull to pale orange caps (Figure 1-A, 1-B) with small spines or teeth on the underside of pilei (Figure 1-D). The cap texture is glabrous and dry, shape is broadly (2-17 cm) convex to plane with a depression in the middle, margin is undulate and pileipellis bruises a darker shade of orange. Spines (2-7 mm long) are white to pale to dull orange and decurrent. Spores (6.5-9 x 5.5-8 µm) white (spore print), smooth and elliptical to subglobose. The stalk (3-10 cm long) texture is smooth or downy at base, shape is equal, enlarged below, or tapered downward and attachment to cap is central or eccentric. Flesh is thick, firm, brittle and white but bruising dark orange (Figure 1-C).

The ‘Father of Taxonomy’, Carl Linnaeus. Image: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/linnaeus.html

Other comments: The genus Hydnum was originally proposed by the ‘Father of Taxonomy’ himself, Carl Linnaeus, in 1753 and Linnaeus is also attributed with naming the species repandum (same year). With more than 260 years for taxonomist to debate the classification H. repandum one might imagine phylogenetic changes occurred along the way. A recent, three-gene molecular analysis suggests that global repandum-clade may exist that is comprised of four species with potentially two different species occurring in the U.S.

Taxonomy:
Basidiomycota , Agaricomycetes, Cantharlellales, Hydnaceae, Hydnum, repandum
Reference: 
Syn = Dentinum repandum Gray
Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum. Laurentius Salvius.
Feng, B., Wang, X. H., Ratkowsky, D., Gates, G., Lee, S. S., Grebenc, T., & Yang, Z. L. 2016.Multilocus phylogenetic analyses reveal unexpected abundant diversity and significant disjunct distribution pattern of the Hedgehog Mushrooms (Hydnum L.). Scientific reports, 6, 25586.
Author: Doug Higgins
Date Posted: 11-18-2018



Laccaria Ochropurpurea (Berkeley) Peck

Fig 2: The shaggy stem of a Laccaria ochropurpurea

Laccaria Ochropurpurea is a mycorrhizal basidiomycete with hardwoods and conifer, and is usually found growing alone. One of the key distinguishing features is the distinct purple color of the gills which is in contrast to the white cap(Fig. 1). Laccaria amethystina  has gills that have a similar dark purple color, but the cap is also purple. The cap can also frequently be characterized by a central depression.  The stem is the same off-white color as the cap, but can also be characterized by a rough or shaggy texture (Fig 2).  This mushroom is known to be edible

Fig 1: The purple gills of Laccara Ochropurpurea (2)

The spores are globose and are ornamented with spikes (Fig. 3). Another distinguishing feature is that when tested with KOH reaction the cap or the stem will briefly turn orange, this can be used to distinguish it from similar Laccaria species such as Laccaria Amethystina which has a brown reaction when tested with KOH.

Laccaria ochropurpurea

Fig 3: Spores of Laccaria Ochropurpurea ornamented with spikes (3)

References:

  1. Kuo, M., & Methven, A. S. (2014). Mushrooms of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press.
  2.  Indiana Mushrooms. http://www.indianamushrooms.com/laccaria_ochropurpurea.html
  3. Laccaria Ochropurpurea. Michael Kuo. Mushroom Expertcom. https://www.mushroomexpert.com/laccaria_ochropurpurea.html

 

 

 

Author: Longley Reid
Date Posted: 11-18-2018



Cyathus Striatus (Hudson) Wildenow

Taxonomy:

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Nidulariaceae

Cyathus Striatus is a saprobic basidiomycete that grows on decaying forest litter or on wood chips. It is widely distributed and can be commonly found in urban areas due to its ability to grow on wood chips. the species was first described by William Hudson in 1778 as Peziza striatus; it was moved to the genus Cyathus in 1801 by Persoon (2). It is commonly known as the Fluted bird’s nest fungus. It appears similar to and has the same habitat as Cyathus Stercoreus, but can be easily distinguished due to the presence of distinct lines or striations on the inner surface of the fruiting body (Fig. 1).  The fruiting body contains peridioles which give the fungus it’s common name, by making it appear as though the fruiting body is a nest containing eggs.  Before maturity, the “nest” of the fruiting body is covered by a white lid that later disappears, revealing the peridioles.

Fig 1: Group of Cyathus Striatus fruiting bodies appearing on wood chips in the MPS gardens. Striations visible in the cup.

 

The peridioles contain the spores in a hard sheath; the spores are smooth and elipsoid, the spores can be distinguished from the Cyathus Stercoreus because of a slightly different shape and a smaller size. Though in most temperate regions of the United States the macroscopic features are reliable enough to distinguish between the two. (Fig. 2).

Cyathus striatus

Fig 2: Spores of Cyathus Striatus (3)

References:

  1. Kuo, M., & Methven, A. S. (2014). Mushrooms of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press.
  2.  Cyathus Striatus. First Nature. https://www.first-nature.com/fungi/cyathus-striatus.ph
  3. Cyathus Striatus.Michael Kuo. Mushroom Expert. com. https://www.mushroomexpert.com/cyathus_striatus.html
Author: Longley Reid
Date Posted: 11-18-2018



Marasmius Siccus (Schweinitz) Fries

Taxonomy:

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomyctes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Marasmiaceae

Marasmius siccus is a small, saprobic basidiomycete mushroom which can be found growing in groups on leaf litter or on dead hardwoods. The species has a large geographical distribution and can essentially be found coast to coast in the United States.  This species can be distinguished from the similar Marasmius Pulcherripes by its orange color (fig. 1).  The cap appears distinct due to pleats running down the length of the cap. The stem is distinct compared to other mushrooms because the stem is very thin and composed of a hard tissue that isn’t malleable.  The gills and flesh below the cap are white; the gills attach to the stem. The color of the stem becomes lighter as the stem approaches the cap.  the edibility is unknown, but is known to have a bitter taste; the mushroom does not have any odor.

Fig 1: A group of Marasmius siccus mushrooms growing on decaying leaf litter.

One of the characteristics of this and other Marasmius species is the presence of broom cells on the edge of the the gills (fig 2). The spores are smooth and spindle- shaped, but it can be difficult to distinguish against other Marasmius species such as Pulcherripes based on microscopy because of similar features (2).

Marasmius siccus

Fig 2: Broom cells of Marasmius Siccus (2)

References:

  1. Kuo, M., & Methven, A. S. (2014). Mushrooms of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press.
  2. Marasmius Siccus. Michael Kuo. Mushroom Expertcom. https://www.mushroomexpert.com/marasmius_siccus.html
Author: Longley Reid
Date Posted: 11-18-2018



Otidea onotica

Otidea onotica (Pers.) Fuckel is a small, yellow cup fungus found often near packed-down paths in forests, originally thought to be in the genus Peziza. Characteristically, these cups have a split down one side, lending the characteristic to it’s common names of “rabbit’s ear fungus” and “lemon peel fungus” (Fig 1). The cups are usually small, often ~5 cm tall and ~3 cm across, with a smooth interior surface and a slightly rough exterior, often spreading into multiple cups per fruiting body or a wide-spread, more open cup (Fig. 2). O. onotica is common in forests, hardwood and pine, in Europe and North America (Fig. 3). It is saprotrophic, growing in clusters or scattered under trees. Inside the cup, ascospores are produced in sets of 8 in the asci, which can then be easily spread from the cup. Spores are ellipsoid and smooth, about 12 um long, and often contain two visible oil droplets, and the spore print is reported to be white. Some sources report O. onotica as being edible, but most agree that they are inedible or possibly have some medicinal value.

Phylum: Ascomycota

Class: Pezizomycetes

Order: Pesisales

Family: Pyronemataceae

Genus: Otidea

Species: onotica

Figure 1

Figure 1: O. onotica fruiting body, where the distinctive cleft is easily seen

Figure 2

Figure 2: A wider fruiting body, where the cleft and surface are still distinctive

Figure 3

Figure 3: A fruiting body hidden among pine needles on a forest floor

 

References:

https://www.first-nature.com/fungi/otidea-onotica.php

http://www.mushroomexpert.com/otidea_onotica.html

Mushrooms of the Midwest by Michael Kuo and Andrew S. Methven

 

Author: Rebecca Shay
Date Posted: 11-18-2018



Punctelia rudecta

Punctelia rudecta (Ach) Krog is a common blue-green foliose lichen found on hardwood trees and bark in eastern North America (Fig 1, 2). This species is easily identified by the light underside of the thallus, the relatively large lobes at the edges of the colony, and the small white pores present on the top of the thallus that are distinctive of the genus (Fig. 3, 4). Like many lichens, P. rudecta can be used as an indicator species for pollution levels in an environment. This species has been described as pollution-tolerant, but has also been shown to be a reasonable indicator species of vehicle pollution levels (https://www.amnh.org/learn-teach/young-naturalist-awards/winning-essays2/2007-winning-essays/lichens-as-indicators-of-vehicle-pollution).

Phylum: Ascomycota

Class: Lecanoromycetes

Order: Lecanorales

Family: Parmeliaceae

Genus: Punctelia

Species: rudecta

figure 1

Figure 1: P. rudecta on a hardwood stick in a pine forest

figure 2

Figure 2: P. rudecta thallus, where the distinct blue-green color is apparent.

Figure 3

Figure 3: Folious lobes of P. rudecta

Figure 4

Figure 4: P. rudecta thallus where the white “punctures” (pores) that are indicative of the genus are seen

 

References:

https://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?guide=Lichens_USGA

https://plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=PURU2

https://www.amnh.org/learn-teach/young-naturalist-awards/winning-essays2/2007-winning-essays/lichens-as-indicators-of-vehicle-pollution

http://mason.gmu.edu/~jlawrey/CUE/summary

 

 

Author: Rebecca Shay
Date Posted: 11-18-2018



Hymenopellis radicata

Hymenopellis radicata (Relhan) R.H. Petersen is a mushroom that has gone through many names over time, but is currently known as H. radicata. This mushrooms is from a group of mushrooms referred to as Xeruloid mushrooms, which are commonly found around tree stumps as saprotrophs, and species are widespread through North America. They feature a long taproot, which distinguishes this group from other similar looking species (Fig. 1). Fruiting bodies have skinny stipes with no veil of any sort, and bell-shaped caps that range from yellow-brown to dark brown and open over time to be nearly flat, with an umbo. These caps are slippery when wet. H. radicata typically grows around beech tree stumps (Fig 2). , which is where this specimen was found, which along with the location (East of the Rocky Mountains) identifies it to species level. Spores make a white spore print, and are lemon-shaped microscopically.

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Physalacriaceae

Genus: Hymenopellis

Species: radicata

 

Figure 1

Figure 1: H. radicata with a visible, long taproot, distinct to the group of mushrooms

Figure 2

Figure 2: H. radicata growing at the base of a beech stump, seen behind the fruiting body.

 

References:

http://www.mycobank.org/BioloMICS.aspx?TableKey=14682616000000067&Rec=478788&Fields=All

http://www.mushroomexpert.com/xeruloid.html

Mushrooms Demystified by David Arora

 

Author: Rebecca Shay
Date Posted: 11-18-2018



Gymnopus dryophilus and Syzygospora mycetophila

Gymnopus dryophilus (Bull.) Murrill is a common mushroom with very common features. It has a tannish-brown cap, white gills, reddish-brown stipe, and produces a white spore print. Honestly, kind of a boring mushroom.

(A) Habitat photo for G. dryophilus. (B) Reddish-brown stipe and white gills of G. dryophilus. (C) Brown cap and white spore print of G. dryophilus (spore print on the stick)However, in some instances, G. dryophilus hosts another fungus, Syzygospora mycetophila (Peck) Ginns & Sunhede. S. mycetophila is a jelly-like fungus that parasitizes G. dryophilus, so S. mycetophilatakes on the tannish-brown color of its host. S. mycetophila is capable of parasitizing the cap and stipe, but does not parasitize the gills.

(A) Cap of G. dryophilus parasitized by S. mycetophila. (B) A second cap of G. dryophilus parasitized by S. mycetophila. (C) Cap and stipe of G. dryophilus parasitized by S. mycetophila.

Phylum: Basidiomycota Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes Class: Tremellomycetes
Order: Agaricales Order: Tremellales
Family: Marasmiaceae Family: Syzygosporaceae
GenusGymnopus GenusSyzygospora
Speciesdryophilus Species: mycetophila

 

References:
Kuo, M. (2013, January). Gymnopus dryophilus. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/gymnopus_dryophilus.html
Kuo, M. (2005, January). Syzygospora mycetophila: Collybia jelly. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/syzygospora_mycetophila.html
Ginns, J. (1986). The Genus Syzygospora (Heterobasidiomycetes: Syzygosporaceae). Mycologia, 78(4), 619-636. doi:10.2307/3807775

Author: Mitch Roth
Date Posted: 11-17-2018



Gyroporus castaneus

Gyroporus castaneus (Bulliard) Quélet is a bolete commonly found in North America, and in Michigan in hardwood forests. It’s called the “chestnut bolete” because of the chestnut brown color of the cap, but is white just below the surface. The pore surface is a pale yellow and does not change colors when bruised or cut. The stipe is hollow and the pores nearly attach to the stipe, with only a small margin between the pores and the stipe. The spore print is a bright yellow, consisting of small, oval, hyaline spores.

(A) Cap surface of G. castaneus. (B) Cross section of cap, showing white cap flesh and pale yellow pore surface. (C) Non-bruising pore surface. (D) Mostly hollow stipe

Yellow spore print (left) containing small, oval, hyaline spores (right)

Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Boletales
Family: Gyroporaceae
Genus: Gyroporus
Speciescastaneus

References:
Kuo, M. (2013, December). Gyroporus castaneus. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/gyroporus_castaneus.html

Author: Mitch Roth
Date Posted: 11-17-2018



Bjerkandera adusta

Bjerkandera adusta (Willd.) P.Karst. is a shelfed polypore mushroom that has a velvety, snow-white cap surface when young, becoming smooth and off-white as it ages. It is commonly called the “smoky polypore” because of the dark grey pore surface, though it also has distinct brown regions on the pore surface too. The spore print is white, containing tiny, hyaline, oval-shaped spores

(A) Young B. adusta with (B) velvety, snow-white cap surface. (C) Mature B. adusta with (D) off-white cap surface

Young B. adusta with grey pore surface, bruising brown (left). Mature B. adusta with grey and brown pore surface.

Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Polyporales
Family: Meruliaceae
GenusBjerkandera
Species: adusta

References:
Kuo, M. (2010, February). Bjerkandera adusta. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/bjerkandera_adusta.html

Author: Mitch Roth
Date Posted: 11-17-2018



Russula emetica

Russula emetica

Taxonomy:

Kingdom:        Fungi

Division:         Basidiomycota

Class:             Agaricomycetes

Order:             Russulales

Family:            Russulaceae

Genus:             Russula

Species:           R. emetica

 

 

Figure 1. Russula emetica (PLP847_2018_203). (A) cap is a fairly deep pinkish to red color. (B) Hymenium and stipe are pure white in color.

Russula emetica (R.H. Petersen) (Basidiomycota, Russulaceae), also called “the sickener”, which is an apt term, as ingestion of this mushroom can lead to severe gastrointestinal upset. R. emetica grows in a mycorrhizal association with other trees, often conifers and can be found from spring through the fall months (Figure 3). The cap is a distinct shade of red, often darker in the center and will peel away from the gills (figure 1). The hymenium is pure white when young and the are attached to the stipe, although they do not run down at all. The stipe itself is also white in color (figure 1).

Figure 2. Russula emetica (PLP847_2018_203). Beautifully ornamented spores produced by Russula emetica (A). Some spores shown lining the edge of the gill (B). The white spore print produced by Russula emetica (C).

This fungus, as do all mushrooms in the Russula genus, has spores which are ornamented and also hyaline (Figure 2A, 2B). This ornamentation helps to distinguish this genus under the microscope. The spore print for this Russula is white and can be seen in Figure 2C.

 

Figure 3. Russula emetica (PLP847_2018_203) growing in a densely packed pine forest amidst both living and decaying evergreen trees.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

Volk, T. (2004). Tom Volk’s Fungus of the Month: Russula emetica. Web. 15 Nov, 2018. https://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/sep2004.html

Labbé, R. (2014). MycoQuebec: Russula emetica. Web. 15 Nov, 2018. https://www.mycoquebec.org/bas.php?post=Russula%20emetica&l=r&nom=Russula%20emetica%20/%20Russule%20%C3%A9m%C3%A9tique&tag=Russula%20emetica&gro=34

MycoBank Russula emetica, Web. 15, November, 2018. http://www.mycobank.org/MB/191650

Author: Sara Getson
Date Posted: 11-15-2018



Pycnoporus cinnabarinus

Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (Jacquin) Karsten

Taxonomy:

Kingdom:        Fungi

Division:         Basidiomycota

Class:             Agaricomycetes

Order:             Polyporales

Family:            Polyporaceae

Genus:             Pycnoporus

Species:           P. cinnabarinus 

 

Pycnoporus cinnebarinus (Jacquin) Karsten (Basidiomycota, Polyporaceae) is very widespread in North America and most commonly found on dead hardwoods. This fungus us a saprotroph and will cause a nice white rot on the dead trees which cross paths with it (figure 3).

Pycnoporus cinnebarinus is a bright orange fungus with an even brighter orange/red pore surface (figure 1). The undersurface of this fungus is covered with very minute pores which produce ellipsoidal shaped spores (figure 2). and which produce a white spore print (figure 2).

Figure 1. Pycnoporus cinnebarinus (PLP847_2018_201). Minute pore surface of Pycnoporus cinnebarinus (left) and the KOH reaction, resulting in a dark purple to gray discoloration (right).

 

Figure 2. Pycnoporus cinnebarinus (PLP847_2018_201) has a white spore print (seen faintly in the left and center pictures. Spores are thin and ellipsoidal in shape (right).

This fungus does not possess a stipe of any sort to speak of, but instead the cap simply grows out of the side of a downed tree trunk. The cap will react to KOH and change to a deep purple color, turning to a more grayish hue as time passes (figure 1).

Figure 3. Pycnoporus cinnebarinus (PLP847_2018_201) environment photo showing the dead tree trunks these fungi were growing on.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

Kuo, M., & Methven, A. S. (2014). Mushrooms of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press.

Kuo, M. (2010, February). Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/pycnoporus_cinnabarinus.html

MycoBank Pyncoporus cinnebarinus, Web. 7, November, 2018. http://www.mycobank.org/MB/120171

Author: Sara Getson
Date Posted: 11-15-2018



Schizophyllum commune (Fries)

Schizophyllum commune (Fries)

Taxonomy:

Kingdom:        Fungi

Division:         Basidiomycota

Class:             Agaricomycetes

Order:             Agaricales

Family:            Schizophyllaceae

Genus:             Schizophyllum

Species:           S. commune

Schizophyllum commune (Fries) (Basidiomycota, Schizophyllaceae) grows throughout the spring, summer, and fall months in most climates and is most commonly found colonizing dead and decaying hardwood material. This fungus is saprophytic for the most part (although there are a few accounts of it being mildly parasitic on hardwoods as well) and can be observed growing in and amongst the lichens on decaying sticks and tree trunks.

Schizophyllum commune generally produces semi-circular to circular caps atop logs and other pieces of wood. The top of the cap generally exhibiting hairs and a somewhat velvety texture, while the underside of the cap will reveal the famous ‘split gills’ for which this fungus is aptly named. These gills appear to be veritably cut in half and look somewhat blunt. These mushrooms will tend to grow rather gregariously, although they can be found individually as well.

 

Figure 1. Schizophyllum commune (PLP847_2018_197). Characteristic split gill pattern on the underside of the mushroom cap (left). The top of the fruiting body roughly resembling a type of bracket fungus and appearing velvety in texture (right).

 

Figure 2. Schizophyllum commune (PLP847_2018_197). Close up of the gills which appear to be split in half longitudinally.

 

Figure 3. Schizophyllum commune (PLP847_2018_197) exhibiting a gregarious fruiting body growth pattern on a decaying stick (left). Another photo depicting the underside of the fruiting body (right).

 

Figure 4. The environment in which this fungus was found. Schizophyllum commune growing in a hardwood forest on and among dead trees and logs.

References:

Kuo, M., & Methven, A. S. (2014). Mushrooms of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press.

Kuo, M. (2003, June). Schizophyllum commune. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/schizophyllum_commune.html

MycoBank Schizophyllum commune, Web. 2, November, 2018. http://www.mycobank.org/MB/208403

Author: Sara Getson
Date Posted: 11-05-2018



Craterellus ignicolor

Craterellus ignicolor (R.H. Petersen)

Taxonomy:

Kingdom:        Fungi

Division:         Basidiomycota

Class:             Agaricomycetes

Order:             Cantharellales

Family:            Cantharellaceae

Genus:             Craterellus

Species:           C. ignicolor

Figure 1. Craterellus ignicolor (PLP847_2018_203). C. ignicolor fruiting bodies growing at the base of oak trees in moss, which is characteristic of this species (left). The false gills of this genus are a major defining character (right).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2. Craterellus ignicolor (PLP847_2018_203). Close up view of the false gills of C. ignicolor. False gills generally resemble wrinkles or pleats, as opposed to forming sharp gills.

 

Craterellus ignicolor (R.H. Petersen) (Basidiomycota, Chantharellaceae) most often grows in areas with significant shade and in amongst moss in coniferous or hardwood forests. These fungi can be mycorrhizal with trees such as oak and beech, but can also be saprotrophic and survive off of dead plant material. These craterelles can most often be seen in the summer and fall months either gregariously or standing alone. False gills are clearly visible on the underside of the cap and are usually pinkish to brownish-orange. The cap becomes perforated in the center as it ages and there develops a clear vase-like appearance, rending the stipe hollow. The margins of the cap will also become scalloped and curl with age.

Figure 3. Craterellus ignicolor (PLP847_2018_203). development of a central depression and becoming hollow with age, places this fungus into the Craterellus genus, as opposed to the genus Cantharellus under which it was previously classified (left). The stipe and underside of this fungus are generally pinkish to brownish-yellow/orange and the cap becomes perforated in the center, turning vase-like with age as well (right).

 

 

Figure 4. Craterellus ignicolor can most often be found growing among moss and ground cover in hardwood forests.

References:

Kuo, M., & Methven, A. S. (2014). Mushrooms of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press.

Kuo, M. (2015, February). Craterellus ignicolor. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/craterellus_ignicolor.html

MycoBank Craterellus ignicolor, Web. 2, November, 2018. http://www.mycobank.org/name/Craterellus%20ignicolor&Lang=Eng

Author: Sara Getson
Date Posted: 11-02-2018



Laccaria bicolor

In 2008, Laccaria bicolor (Maire) P.D. Orton was the first gilled mushroom to have its entire genome sequenced. Sequencing showed that the fungus was releasing small effector-type proteins, likely prompting the reorganization of tree root cells (Martin et al. 2008).

It has since served as a model ectomycorrhizal species seen in association with pine, fir, birch, and poplar trees. To this day, it is commonly added to the soil in tree nurseries to boost seedling growth (Watkinson et al. 2015).

L. bicolor can be found in western North American and around the Great Lakes. The mushroom has a tan cap, convex to flat, measuring 1-7 cm in diameter, and a stem 3-10 centimeters long. The attached lilac gills and basal mycelium are characteristic of the species, but can sometimes fade to white and make older specimens difficult to identify (Kuo 2010).

 

Figure 1. Dysmorphic Laccaria bicolor (should be nearly flat). It is possible that the specimens in this area were lacking nutrients or infected with a virus.

 

Figure 2. Pine forest in which the specimen was collected.

The spores are white, broadly elliptical, and measure 7-9 by 6-8 micrometers. The spines can be difficult to see, measuring about 1 micrometer long (Kuo 2010).

 

Figure 3. Spore print of L. bicolor.

 

Figure 4. Spores of L. bicolor.

Taxonomy

Basidiomycota

Agaricomycotina

Agaricomycetes

Agaricales

Hydnangiaceae

Laccaria

bicolor

 

Literature

Kuo, M. (2010, December). Laccaria bicolor. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/laccaria_bicolor.html

Martin, F., Aerts, A., Ahrén, D., Brun, A., Danchin, E. G. J., Duchaussoy, F., … & Salamov, A. (2008). The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis. Nature452(7183), 88.

Watkinson, S. C., Boddy, L., & Money, N. (2015). The fungi. Academic Press.

Author: Nikki Lukasko
Date Posted: 10-29-2018



Mutinus elegans

Mutinus elegans (Montagne) E. Fischer is a member of the stinkhorn group of mushrooms, which are similar in appearance and stench bu are in two separate genera. These mushrooms are distinct from the genus Phallus due to the lack of a separate, distinct cap (Fig 1). There are many common names that all reference M. elegans, including Elegant stinkhorn, Dog stinkhorn, and Devil’s dipstick.

M. elegans grows in mulch, often in flower beds (Fig 2). Although many gardeners try to rid themselves of the smelly fungi, it’s nearly impossible to do without paving over the garden bed. These fungi are saprobic, often found in the fall in the northern United States. The stink is to attract flies, which carry sticky spores to new locations. The green slimy bit observed at the top of the fruiting body contains the spores, which are oblong, 4-7 um in length and 2-3 um across. The fruiting body develops from “eggs’, white round structures that reveal an immature fruiting body. Once these fruiting bodies emerge, they are pink to red in color, with a finely pitted surface. M. elegans is distinguished from the other species in the genus by the taper to the end of the fruiting body, the finely pitted surface (as opposed to larger pits in some species), and the spores are typically larger than other species. This species was first described in 1888, and has changed taxonomy a few times, until it was definitively placed in 2006.

Taxonomy:

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Phallales

Family: Phallaceae

Genus: Mutinus

Species: elegans

Figure 1

Figure 1: M. elegans, where the fruiting body has a red stipe with green/gray spores coating the top part, but no separate cap.

Figure 3

Figure 3: Eggs of M. elegans surrounding a mature fruiting body.

Figure 2

Figure 2: M. elegans in mulch in a garden.

 

 

 

References:

http://www.mushroomexpert.com/mutinus_elegans.html

http://www.messiah.edu/Oakes/fungi_on_wood/stinkhorn/species%20pages/Mutinus%20elegans.htm

http://www.press.uillinois.edu/wordpress/mushroom-monday-mutinus-elegans/

Saccardo, P.A. 1888. Sylloge Fungorum. 7 1 882

 

Author: Rebecca Shay
Date Posted: 10-24-2018



Fungus is fashionable

Image result for tricoderma virdie

Top: Tricoderma spp. Bottom: Gucci stonewash jeans                      http://img1.exportersindia.com/product_images/bc-small/dir_10/298855/trichoderma-viride-834109 

 

 

In the past stone wash jeans were actually made with pumice stones. There were many drawbacks to using stones which include damage to the fabric and costs associated with the machinery used.  It is now done by biostoning with the fungus Trichoderma reesei . The fungus produces cellulolytic enzymes that helps degrade the cotton material.  The enzymes are cellulases and hemicelulases.   These enzymes bind to the exposed cellulose on the outer cotton fiber wall (dyed fabric/indigo)  and the molecular bonds are broken while the interior are left unbroken.   It changes the surface of the jeans without destroying the makeup of the fabric. This allows for endless creative works!!!  And at a fraction of the cost of using pumice stones.

 

 

Li X., Chang S.H., Liu R. (2018) Industrial Applications of Cellulases and Hemicellulases. In: Fang X., Qu Y. (eds) Fungal Cellulolytic Enzymes.

  https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-13-0749-2_15

https://study.com/academy/lesson/microbes-and-the-clothing-industry.html

Pictures:  Top:

Author: Celeste Dmytryszyn
Date Posted: 10-24-2018



Pholiota limonella

Pholiota limonella (Peck) Sacc., PLP847_2018_595

P. limonella is a gilled, saprobic mushroom found growing gregariously on logs. When I found it, these mushrooms were profusely slimy, even after donating some to its sample bag and to all the curious observers. This species was originally place in Agaricus by Peck in 1878, and has numerous synonyms in Pholiota including Pholiota subsquarrosa var. limonella (Rick 1938), Pholiota abietis (A.H. Sm. & Hesler 1968), Pholiota connata (A.H. Sm. & Hesler 1968), Pholiota subvelutipes (A.H. Sm. & Hesler 1968), Pholiota ceriferoides (P.D. Orton 1988).

This specimen was collected near Mazomanie, WI, in mixed oak-hickory-elm forest. It was growing along a hickory log with multiple fruiting bodies emerging along its length.  The caps are viscid, about 6 cm in diameter, yellow with deeper color in center, turns orange with KOH. After drying, there was a slight bluish tinge on cap. Stipe are curved, woody, and thin (about 5mm), with small scales below the annulus line. Spores are brown, kidney-shaped and measure 7.36 ± 0.41 x 4.52 ± 0.18 μm (average of 10 spores ± SD), which is consistent with P. limonella and differentiates from P. aurivella with larger spores (Farr et al. 1977). This study used mating tests to circumscribe Pholita species and concluded that spore size is the only morphological differentiation they could find.

Figure 1. A) Specimens on hickory log. B) Habitat in which the specimens were found, C) Positive KOH on cap, with orange color produced. D) Brown, kidney-shaped spores in KOH (1000x).

Pholiota limonella panel

Division: Basiomycota

Subdivision: Agaricomycotina

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Strophariaceae

Site: 43.1221651, -89.6819301

References

Farr ER, Miller Jr OK, Farr DF. Biosystematic studies in the genus Pholiota, stirps Adiposa. Canadian Journal of Botany. 1977 May 1;55(9):1167-80.

Author: Julian Liber
Date Posted: 10-20-2018



Clitocybe nuda

Clitocybe nuda (Bull.) H.E. Bigelow & A.H. Sm., Blewit, PLP847_2018_359

Clitocybe nuda, a common saprobic mushroom growing on duff or woodchips, is a desired edible. It it characterized by a faint lilac or purple color and a light brown spore print. This species has previously been placed in 6 other genera (Agaricus (Bull. 1790), Cortinarius (Gray 1821), Lepista (Cooke 1871), Tricholoma (P. Kumm. 1871; Rick 1961), Gyrophila (Quél. 1886), and Rhodopaxillus (Maire 1913). C. nuda has interesting special metabolites, such as indole-3-carbaldehyde, which has been shown to inhibit spore germination of Phytophtora capsica (Chen et al. 2012). The extract of the mushroom has also been shown to inhibit growth of several important bacterial and fungal pathogens (Suay et al. 2000). Researchers also report impact on sugar and lipid metabolism by ingestion of the water extract of C. nuda (Chen et al. 2014).

This specimen was collected on the Smith Foray, outside of Mazomanie, WI. The cap is brown with a slight purple tinge, about 8 cm, and sticky but not slimy. The stipe appears violet and is shorter than the cap is wide. Spores are nonpigmented, ellipsoid, about 8 x 4.5 μm. The context is whitish-purple and the odor slightly fragrant.

Figure 1. A) Clamp connections are present on hyphae (400x). B) Specimen in the field, growing under oak and white pine. C) Spores are ellipsoid, unpigmented. D) Habitat of specimen.

Panel of Clitocybe nuda

Figure 2. Specimen cut to reveal color of context.

Cut clitocybe nuda

Division: Basiomycota

Subdivision: Agaricomycotina

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Tricholomataceae

Site: 43.224501,-89.8007733

Chen MH, Lin CH, Shih CC. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Clitocybe nuda on glucose transporter 4 and AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in high-fat-fed mice. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2014;2014.

Chen JT, Su HJ, Huang JW. Isolation and identification of secondary metabolites of Clitocybe nuda responsible for inhibition of zoospore germination of Phytophthora capsici. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2012 Jul 17;60(30):7341-4.

Suay I, Arenal F, Asensio FJ, Basilio A, Cabello MA, Díez MT, García JB, Del Val AG, Gorrochategui J, Hernández P, Peláez F. Screening of basidiomycetes for antimicrobial activities. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 2000 Aug 1;78(2):129-40.

Author: Julian Liber
Date Posted: 10-19-2018



Polyporus squamosus

Polyporus squamosus (Huds.) Fr.

Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Polyporales
Family: Polyporaceae
Genus: Polyporus
Species: squamosus

 

Polyporus squamosus, is a bracket fungus which is commonly found in North America, Australia, Asia and Europe. This polypore can be found on dead logs and living hardwoods. They can be either saprobic on decaying logs or parasitic on living hardwoods.

P. squamosus has a kidney shaped or fan shaped cap covered with dark brown colored radially arranged scales. The upper side of the body is yellow to brown color and the cap is 5-30 cm across and 1-4 cm thick. The underside of the body is covered by pores which are running down the stem as a tightly packed tube layer. These tubes are up to 1.5 cm long. The fruiting body is attached to the substrate at one point with a thick, 2-8 cm long, off-centered stem (Figure 1). The spore print of P. squamosus is white (Figure 2). Spores are long-ellipsoid and roughly 10-15 x 4-5 µ (Figure 3).

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Figure 1: Polyporus squamosus growing on living tree trunk. A: The upper side of the fruiting body having scales. B: The underside of the fruiting body with pores

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Figure 2: The spore print of Polyporus squamosus

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Figure 3: Microscopic image showing the spores of Polyporus squamosus

 

 

References:
Kuo, M. (2015, April). Polyporus squamosus. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com
Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/polyporus_squamosus.html

Gonthier, P., & Nicolotti, G. (2007). A field key to identify common wood decay fungal species on standing trees. Arboriculture and Urban Forestry, 33(6), 410.

http://www.librifungorum.org/Image.asp?ItemID=34&ImageFileName=SyllogeFungorum6-79.jpg

 

Author: Malini Jayawardana
Date Posted: 10-08-2018



Lactifluus hygrophoroides

Lactifluus hygrophoroides (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Kuntze

Formerly belonging to the Lactarius genus, this species was moved to Lactifluus subg. Lactifluus (autonymous) in 2012. L. hygrophoroides can be recognized via a velvety pale orange cap/stipe, white non-staining latex (as opposed to Lactarius volemus, which looks similar but stains brown), and spaced gills. The cap of this mushroom ranges from 3-10 cm, starting convex and flattening over time (Fig 1). When exposed to potassium hydroxide, the cap will stain pale olive (Fig. 3). The stipe is 3-5 cm long and 0.5-1.5 cm wide with coloring very similar to the cap. The gills are slightly decurrent and lighter than the cap/stipe, often entirely white. When damaged, a bright white latex is released, turning pale yellow over time (Fig. 2). The spores are white, elliptical, 7-9 x 5.5-7 µm, with ornamentation under 0.5 µm (Fig. 4). It is mycorrhizal with oaks (see oak leaves in Fig. 1), and can be found anywhere from Texas to eastern North America throughout the summer.

 

Figure 1. L. hygrophoroides growing under oaks near a river in sandy soil.

 

Figure 2. White latex released from the gills of L. hygrophoroides.

 

Figure 3. A pale olive color on the cap following KOH contact.

 

Figure 4. Spores of L. hygrophoroides viewed at 1000x.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Taxonomy

Basidiomycota

Agaricomycotina

Agaricomycetes

Russulales

Russulaceae

Lactifluus

hygrophoroides

 

Basionym: Lactarius hygrophoroides

 

References

Kuo, M. (2011, February). Lactarius hygrophoroides. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/lactarius_hygrophoroides.html

Kuo, M., & Methven, A. S. (2014). Mushrooms of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press.

Verbeken, A., Van de Putte, K. and De Crop, E., 2012. New combinations in Lactifluus. 3. L. subgenera Lactifluus and Piperati. Mycotaxon120(1), pp.443-450.

Author: Nikki Lukasko
Date Posted: 10-03-2018



Cantharellus cinnabarinus

Cantharellus cinnabarinus (Schwein.) Schwein.

 

The red chanterelle, native to eastern North America, has a wide distribution. Found scattered or alone in summer and fall, it is easily recognized by its flamingo pink to cinnabar red pigments and well-spaced decurrent false gills. This species contains multiple carotenoids, but the most prominent is canthaxanthin. This phytochemical is common in nature, used as an additive in the food industry, and is being studied for a variety of medicinal applications. The convex cap is 1-4 cm across with a stipe 1-4 cm long and 0.5-1.5 cm wide. The pinkish-cream spores are smooth, ellipsoid, and measure 6-11 x 4-6 micrometers.

 

    

Figure 1. Mature C. cinnabarinus (left) and the characteristic false, decurrent gills (right). 

It is mycorrhizal with several hardwoods including oak, beech, aspen, and hickories. It smells fragrant or sweet and tastes peppery when cooked.

Figure 2. Conducive environment for C. cinnabarinus growth.

 

Taxonomy

Basidiomycota

Agaricomycotina

Agaricomycetes

Cantharellales

Cantharellaceae

Cantharellus

cinnabarinus

 

Basionym: Agaricus cinnabarinus

 

References

Kuo, M., & Methven, A. S. (2014). Mushrooms of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press.

Kuo, M. (2015, March). Cantharellus cinnabarinus. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/cantharellus_cinnabarinus.html

National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID=5281227, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/5281227 (accessed Oct. 3, 2018).

Author: Nikki Lukasko
Date Posted: 10-03-2018



Suillus americanus

Suillus americanus (Peck) Snell, Chicken Fat Mushroom, PLP847_2018_351

S. americanus is a bolete found in eastern North American and is mycorrhizal with white pines, especially Pinus strobus. It was formerly called Boletus americanus Peck (1887), Ixocomus americanus (Peck) E.-J. Gilbert (1931), and Suillus americanus f. americanus (Peck) Snell (1944). This specimen cluster was located about 4 m from a Pinus strobus, in grass. It was collected in East Lansing, MI, just north of the W.J. Beal Botanical Garden.

The specimens are characterized by bright yellow, mucilaginous caps, about 4-5 cm in diameter. They are convex and slightly umbonate. The context is soft, when torn it bruises from yellow to light brown. The hymenium is yellow-brown and composed of pores, which are circular, about 1-2 per mm. Pores are larger near the stipe becoming smaller near the margin. Stipe is pale yellow to brown, slightly scabrous near the cap. Spores are oblong, brown print. S. americanus is considered an edible mushroom (Ostry et al. 2011), but it is known to cause contact dermatitis is certain individuals (Bruhn and Soderberg 1991). Its bright color and gregarious habitat makes it easy to spot when they are fruiting.

S. americanus 351 panel

Figure 1. A) S. americanus growing in grass in a large cluster. B) Collected basidiocarps of ranging size and maturity. C) Spores and basidia, stained with Cotton Blue (400X). D) Stipe detail, showing slight scabrous texture. E) Hymenium detail, showing angular and irregular pore size.

Bruhn JN, Soderberg MD. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by mushrooms. Mycopathologia. 1991 Sep 1;115(3):191-5.

Ostry ME, O’Brien JG, Anderson NA. Field guide to common macrofungi in eastern forests and their ecosystem functions. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Wu QX, Mueller GM, Lutzoni FM, Huang YQ, Guo SY. Phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of eastern Asian and eastern North American disjunct Suillus species (Fungi) as inferred from nuclear ribosomal RNA ITS sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 2000 Oct 1;17(1):37-47.

Author: Julian Liber
Date Posted: 10-02-2018



Pholiota squarrosa (Vahl) P. Kumm.

Phylum: Basidomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Strophariacaea
Genus: Pholiota
Epithet: squarrosa
Authority: (Vahl) P. Kumm.
Collection #: PLP847_2018_172
Locale: Schoolcraft County, Michigan

Pholiota squarrosa, known as the shaggy scalycap or shaggy Pholiota, is the type species for the genus Pholiota. The genus name is derived from the Greek word Pholis, meaning ‘a scale,’ and the specific epithet, squarrosa, which translates to ‘with upright scales.’

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Figure 1. Pholiota squarrosa cluster growing at the base of a living maple tree.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ecology: Saprobic in clusters at the base of standing living or dead broad-leaf trees, particularly beech, and occasionally at the base of conifer stumps. This collection was found at the base of a living maple in a mixed forest (Fig. 1). It is thought that P. squarrosa is an opportunistic parasite and can attack trees that have been weakened by previous injury.

Morphology: Cap and stem are yellowish under the conspicuous reddish-brown scales for which this species is named (Fig. 2). Other members of this genus, including the very similar P. squarrosoides, have sticky caps, but P. squarrosa has a dry cap. Stem is 4-12 cm long and up to 1.5 cm thick. A partial veil covers the gills when young and is shaggy or cortina-like in appearance (Fig. 3). Mature specimens have an annulus and involute margin. Flesh is white to yellowish. Odor is garlic-like, mild, but somewhat unpleasant.

[image – closeup of fresh material]

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Figure 2. Close up view of the stipe of Pholiota squarrosa showing the prominent scales.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Figure 3. Close up view of the cobweb-like partial veil of Pholiota squarrosa.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spores: 5.5-9.0 x 3.5-5.0 μm; smooth; elliptical; with an apical pore; reddish-brown in KOH (Fig. 4). Spore print reddish brown (Fig. 5)

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Figure 4. Spores of Pholiota squarrosa. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Figure 5. Spore print of Pholiota squarrosa.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edibility: Not edible, considered poisonous, especially when consumed with alcohol.

 

References:

Kuo, M. (2007). Pholiota squarrosa. MushroomExpert.com https://www.mushroomexpert.com/pholiota_squarrosa.html

https://www.first-nature.com/fungi/pholiota-squarrosa.php

By: Doug Minier

Author: Douglas Minier
Date Posted: 10-01-2018



Xylaria Polymorpha

Taxonomy

  • Domain: Ascomycota
  • Class: Sordariomycetes
  • Order: Xylariales
  • Family: Xylariaceae
  • Genus: Xylaria
  • Species: Polymorpha

Xylaria Polymorpha(Persoon) is a saprobic ascomycete that is commonly known as deadman’s fingers(1). It is commonly found growing at the base of decaying hardwoods or beech trees. This species of Xylaria is very similar at first glance to Xylaria Longpipes, but can be distinguished by the absence of a distinct stem. Xylaria Polymorpha stays about the same width from top to bottom whereas longpipes is characterized by a thin stem widening to a club shape at the the top(figure one). One interesting feature of Xylaria Polymorpha is that contrary to the dark outside skin of the fruiting body, the flesh on the inside is distinctly white. The fruiting body is dense and nearly woody.  These fungi are frequently seen grown on the large roots of trees as seen in figure two. 

Figure two: In this image, the microhabitat of this Fungus growing on a large root extending from the base of a beech tree.

Figure One: The lack of a distinct stem can be seen as the shape remains essentially uniform. The white flesh can also be seen underneath the dark outer flesh.

Figure Four: An image of the asci containing spores in Xylaria Polymorpha(3).

 

Under a dissecting scope the white flesh in contrast to the dark outer skin is very clear as can be seen in figure three. The spores seems typical of ascomycetes and appear in asci containing dark colored rounded spores (figure four).

Figure Three: A microscopic image showing the white inner flesh(2).

Some interest has been generated in the use of Xylaria Polymorpha in medicine specifically as an antimicrobial agent. This fungus was shown to inhibit the growth of E Coli in culture experiments (4). It has also generated recent interest in the discovery of new lignin degrading and other interesting enzymes (5).

 

Sources:

1) Kuo, M., & Methven, A. S. (2014). Mushrooms of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press.

2) Tom Volk’s Fungus of the Month for April 2000. Tom Volk. https://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/apr2000.html

3) Xylaria Polymorpha (Dead Man’s Fingers). Michael Kuo. https://www.mushroomexpert.com/xylaria_polymorpha.html

4) Hacıoğlu, Nurcihan & Akata, Ilgaz & Dulger, Basaran. (2011). Antimicrobial potential of Xylaria polymorpha (Pers.) Grev. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 5.

5) Nghi, Do & Bittner, Britta & Kellner, Harald & Jehmlich, Nico & Ullrich, René & J Pecyna, Marek & Nousiainen, Paula & Sipilä, Jussi & Huong, Le & Hofrichter, Martin & Liers, Christiane. (2012). The Wood Rot Ascomycete Xylaria polymorpha Produces a Novel GH78 Glycoside Hydrolase That Exhibits -L-Rhamnosidase and Feruloyl Esterase Activities and Releases Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Lignocelluloses. Applied and environmental microbiology. 78. 4893-901. 10.1128/AEM.07588-11.

 

 

 

Author: Longley Reid
Date Posted: 10-01-2018



Phyllachora maydis

Phyllachora maydis (Maublanc)

Ecology and Morphology: Phyllachora maydis (Maubl.) is an obligate parasite of Corn (Zea mays) that was reported in Michigan for the first time in 2016. The Phyllachora genus contains many tarspot causing fungi, but P. maydis is the only pathogen capable of causing tarspot on corn.  P. maydis is considered a new and emerging pathogen of corn in the United States with the potential to cause yield loss. This pathogen has been found on a variety of hybrids, some expressing more resistance than others. Phyllachora maydis is easily identified by the small, black ascomata (1-5mm diameter) found throughout infected leaves which cannot be rubbed from the leaf. Necrotic halos surrounding  the black ascomata can regularly be seen throughout infected plants. P. maydis overwinters in plant debris and re-infections are thought to occur via windblown ascospores in mid-summer.  Ascospores are ellipsoid, aseptate and hyaline.

 

Taxonomy:

Kingdom:  Fungi

Division: Ascomycota

Class: Sordariomycetes

Order: Phyllachorales

Family: Phyllachoraceae

Genus: Phyllachora

Species: P. maydis

Figure 1. Phyllachora maydis (PLP847_2018_29) ascomata on infected leaves under 40x magnification.

Figure 1. Phyllachora maydis (PLP847_2018_29) ascomata with asci on infected leaves.

 

Figure 2. Plant infected with Phyllachora maydis.

Figure 2. Plant infected with Phyllachora maydis.

 

Figure 3. habitat photo with typical Phyllachora maydis infection.

Figure 3. habitat photo with typical Phyllachora maydis infection.

Literature:

Maublanc, A. 1904. Espèces nouvelles de champignons inférieurs. Bulletin de la Société Mycologique de France. 20(2):70-74

McCoy, A. G., Romberg, M. K., Zaworski, E. R., Robertson, A. E., Phibbs, A., Hudelson, B. D., … Chilvers, M. I. (2018). First Report of Tar Spot on Corn ( Zea mays ) Caused by Phyllachora maydis in Florida, Iowa, Michigan, and Wisconsin. Plant Disease, PDIS-02-18-0271. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-02-18-0271-PDN

Ruhl, G., et al. 2016. Plant Dis. 100:1496.

Author: Austin Mccoy
Date Posted: 09-24-2018



Hypomyces chrysospermus

Hypomyces chrysospermus (Tul. & C. Tul.)

Ecology and Morphology: Hypomyces chrysospermus is a parasitic fungal species that primarily infects Bolete fungi. Numerous Boletes within a given area can be infected and appear completely white. H. chrysospermus completely covers infected mushrooms with floccose hyphae, causing them to appear completely white in its early infection. However, later in the season the white coloring will turn to yellow as the parasite decomposes the infected mushroom. H. chrysospermus will have 3 different spore morphologies depending on its age. This collection was made early on in the infection process (white stage) and thus has smooth, ellipsoid spores. No intact asci were observed.

Taxonomy:

Kingdom: Fungi

Phylum: Ascomycota

Class: Sordariomycetes

Order: Hypocreales

Family: Hypocreaceae

Genus: Hypomyces

Species: Hypomyces chrysospermus

Figure 1. Bolete parasitized by H. chrysospermus

Figure 1. Bolete parasitized by H. chrysospermus

 

Figure 2. Ovoid, smooth spores of H. chrysospermus.

Figure 2. Smooth, ellipsoid spores of H. chrysospermus.

Literature:

Tulasne, L.-R.; Tulasne, C. 1860. De quelques Sphéries fongicoles, à propos d’un mémoire de M. Antoine de Bary sur les Nyctalis. Annales des Sciences Naturelles Botanique. 13:5-19

Marrone, T., & Yerich, K. (2014). Mushrooms of the upper Midwest: A simple guide to common mushrooms. Cambridge, MN: Adventure Publications.

 

Author: Austin Mccoy
Date Posted: 09-24-2018



Bondarzewia berkeleyi

Bondarzewia berkeleyi (Fr.) Bondartsev & Singer, Berkley’s Polypore, PLP847_2018_128

B. berkeleyi has been historically classified as a polypore, but with the advent of molecular techniques, it was revealed to be more closely related to Russala than the polypores (Hibbett and Donoghue 1995). Previous names used for B. berkeleyi have included: Polyporus berkeleyi Fr. (1851), Grifola berkeleyi (Fr.) Murrill (1904), and Polyporus eurocephalus Berk. & Broome (1875).

The specimen collected was found in the soil about 0.5 m away from a Quercus macrocarpa trunk, on a forested riverbank by the Red Cedar River in East Lansing, MI. The specimen was cream-colored, with slight radial banding, and the pileus formed lobes about 10-20 cm wide. The hymenium is cream and has angular pores. Spores are white, ornamented and globular.  The overall cluster was about 30 cm tall.

B. berkeleyi is limited in distribution to eastern North America where it is the only species of the genus (Song et al. 2016). The fungus can be pathogenic on trees, especially Quercus and Acer (Gilbertson and Ryvarden 1986). It is considered edible (Boa and Boa 2004).

Bondarzewia berkeleyi panel

Figure 1. A) Basidiocarp at the base of a Quercus macrocarpa. B) Hymenium of the specimen, showing angular pores. C) Habitat where the specimen was found, on a forested riverbank. D) Spore at 1000X, showing light color and ornamentation.

Division: Basiomycota

Subdivision: Agaricomycotina

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Russulales

Family: Bondarzewiaceae

Site: 42.73051119,-84.48478613

Boa ER, Boa E. Wild edible fungi: a global overview of their use and importance to people. Food & Agriculture Org.; 2004.

Hibbett DS, Donoghue MJ. Progress toward a phylogenetic classification of the Polyporaceae through parsimony analysis of mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Canadian Journal of Botany. 1995 Dec 31;73(S1):853-61.

Gilbertson RL, Ryvarden L. North American polypores 1. Fungiflora, Oslo 1986.

Song J, Chen JJ, Wang M, Chen YY, Cui BK. Phylogeny and biogeography of the remarkable genus Bondarzewia (Basidiomycota, Russulales). Scientific reports. 2016 Sep 29;6:34568.

Author: Julian Liber
Date Posted: 09-23-2018



Claviceps purpurea

Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul., Ergot Fungus, PLP847_2018_127

C. purpurea is a parasite of grasses in the subfamily Pooidae, and was found on Elymus repens in East Lansing, MI. C. purpurea produces dark purple to brown sclerotia which grow in infected ovarian tissue of the host grass. The fungus infects through the stigma and begins growing in the ovary after 3 days. Eventually, the entire ovary is replaced by fungal tissue (Shaw and Mantle 1980). Pažoutová et al. 2015 determined that C. purpurea can be divided into four species based on gene flow and a multigene phylogeny, including C. purpurea sensu stricto, C. humidiphila, C. spartinae, and C. arundinis. In the United States, all sclerotia found on Elymus repens were in C. purpurea sensu stricto. The ITS1F-LR3 contig confirms this grouping for isolate PLP847_2018_127.

Other names for this species have included Sphaeria purpurea Fr. (1823), Cordyceps purpurea (Fr.) Fr. (1849), and Pseudocenangium purpureum (Fr.) A. Knapp. The fungus is known for its production of ergot alkaloids (Flieger et al. 1997), many of which are quite toxic but pharmaceutically useful (ergotamines, ergoxines, ergotoxines, ergoannines). There is even a popular hypothesis, maybe unlikely, that contamination of grain with C. purpurea in Salem was involved in the town’s infamous witch trials (Woolf 2000).

Features of Claviceps purpurea PLP847_2018_127

Figure 1. A) The sclerotia appeared dark brown, about 10 mm in length, growing in one to several sclerotia per spike on Elymus repens. B) The habitat was a grassy margin under Juglans nigra, outside of Baker Woodlot. C) Cut sclerotia, revealing the purple surface and white interior. D) The cells inside the sclerotia appear cuboid and to contain lipid vesicles (1000X).

Division: Ascomycota

Subdivision: Pezizomycotina

Class: Sordariomycetes

Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae

Order: Hypocreales

Family: Clavicipitaceae

Site: 42.71887467,-84.47776228

Flieger M, Wurst M, Shelby R. Ergot alkaloids—sources, structures and analytical methods. Folia microbiologica. 1997 Feb 1;42(1):3-0.

Pažoutová S, Pešicová K, Chudíčková M, Šrůtka P, Kolařík M. Delimitation of cryptic species inside Claviceps purpurea. Fungal Biology. 2015 Jan 1;119(1):7-26.

Shaw BI, Mantle PG. Host infection by Claviceps purpurea. Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 1980 Jan 1;75(1):77-90.

Woolf A. Witchcraft or mycotoxin? The Salem witch trials. Journal of Toxicology: Clinical Toxicology. 2000 Jan 1;38(4):457-60.

Author: Julian Liber
Date Posted: 09-23-2018



Phallus Ravenelii

Taxonomy:

  • Phylum: Basidiomycota
  • Class:Agaricomycetes
  • Order: Phallales
  • Family: Phallaceae
  • Genus: Phallus
  • Species: Ravenelii 

Phallus Ravenelii (Berkeley & M.A. Curtis) is a saprobic basidiomycete of the genus Phallus that can be found growing in various habitats. The habitats in which it may be found range from areas such as lawns and gardens to woodchips and meadows. The mature fruiting body of this fungus is characterized by a long spongey stipe leading to a brown cap. The cap is characterized by brown spore containing secretions as well as a white portion on the top of the cap(figure one). It can be distinguished from the morphologically similar Phallus Hadriani by the presence of a smooth cap instead of one that contains pits and ridges. The stipe is about 3 cm thick with a spongey texture on the outside and a hollow inside.

One of the other important identifying characteristics of this mushroom is the strong odor associated with it; giving it the common name of Ravenel’s Stinkhorn. This mushroom is named after the botanist, Henry William Ravenel who discovered it in 1846. Along with a strong odor, the cap is a prolific spore producer as seen in the spore print figure two.

    Figure one: Phallus Ravenelii found growing on the edge of soil and grass in a stand of hardwoods

Figure two: Spores produced from the cap of Phallus Ravenelii

The spores of Phallus Ravenelii are ellipsoid and appear smooth under the microscope as can be seen in figure three.

Figure three: Spores of Phallus Ravenelli from https://www.marylandbiodiversity.com/viewSpecies.php?species=13201

Sources: 

Kuo, M., & Methven, A. S. (2014). Mushrooms of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press.

The Maryland Biodiversity Project – Ravenel’sStinkhorn https://www.marylandbiodiversity.com/viewSpecies.php?species=13201

About Henry William Ravenel: http://ravenel.cdh.sc.edu/about

 

 

 

Author: Longley Reid
Date Posted: 09-23-2018



Leucocoprinus birnbaumii

Leucocoprinus birnbaumii (Corda) Singer (1962) is a common mushroom in flowerpots (Fig 1). It is a saprobe that colonizes rich organic material, including indoor flowerpots. The cap begins as an egg-shaped ball, which grows into a bell-shaped cap, often ornamented with scales. The bright yellow color makes this mushroom easily identifiable, but the cap will often fade to white/beige over time. The spores are ellipsoid with a pore at one end (Fig 2), with a white spore print. L. birnbaumii was reported as Agaricus luteus in 1785, but that species name was already taken by another mushroom, leading to the use of Lepiota lutea for many years, until a taxonomic consensus was reached.

Figure 1: L. birnbuamii in succulent pot (PLP847_2018_87)

 

 

L birnbaumii spores

Figure 2: L. birnbaumii spores (http://www.mushroomexpert.com/leucocoprinus_birnbaumii.html)

Phylum: Basidiomycota

Class: Agaricomycetes

Order: Agaricales

Family: Agaricaceae

Genus: Leucocoprinus

Species: birnbaumii

 

 

 

 

 

Other notes: L. birnbaumii is not harmful to the plants in the pots it grows in, nor is it poisonous to the touch. Do not eat L. birnbaumii, as it is likely toxic in large amounts.

References:

http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/feb2002.html

http://www.mushroomexpert.com/leucocoprinus_birnbaumii.html

https://nature.berkeley.edu/brunslab/ev/vellinga_nomencl_v47_feb2009.pdf

https://books.google.com/books?id=MiMhAQAAMAAJ&vq=luteus&dq=editions%3AHUN_blmaTp0C&pg=PT189#v=onepage&q=J.%20Caygill&f=false

 

Author: Rebecca Shay
Date Posted: 09-22-2018



Parasola auricoma

Parasola auricoma (Pat.) Redhead, Vilgalys & Hopple is a small, short-lived, fragile, saprobic mushroom that is common in woodlands, mulch, and grassy areas. This fungus was previously classified as Coprinus auricomus in 1886 by Narcisse Théophile Patouillard, but like many fungi, it has been reclassified due to the development of molecular techniques. In 2001, the Coprinus genus was split into three monophyletic genera, Coprinopsis, Coprinellus, and Parasola.

Figure 1. Habitat (A) and close up (B) of inky-cap species Parasola auricoma

Mushrooms in the Parasola genus have large ridges on the top of the cap, along with a central “eye” that is often dark brown or orange-brown (Fig. 1). These fungi produce heavy black spore prints, giving them the “inky” reputation. P. auricoma has a few inky-cap look-alikes, but can be distinguished from other species using a few macro and microscopic features. Examining the connection between gills and stipe provides a macroscopic distinction, as P. auricoma gills connect directly to the stipe (adnate or adnexed, Fig. 2) while P. plicatilis gills do not (free). In addition, young P. auricoma mushrooms have orange-brown caps (Fig. 3) that develop into the pleated grey-brown mature cap, while young mushrooms of the look-alike species P. plicatilis are lighter in color, either off-white or yellow-orange. Microscopically, both produce black spore prints but the shapes of the spores have obvious differences. P. auricoma has oval-shaped spores with rounded edges (Fig. 3) while P. plicatilis has oval-shaped spores with points, shaped like a lemon (limoniform) or tear-drop.

Figure 2. Macroscopic features of Parasola auricoma featuring orange-brown cap with eye (A), white, hollow stipe (B), and attached intermediate gills (C).

Figure 3. Various life stages of Parasola auricoma for collection (A), and dark brown basidiospores (B) with an oval shape and rounded edges (C).

Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Psathyrellaceae
Genus: Parasola
Species: auricoma
Collection Number: PLP847_2018_104

References:
Drake, A. Parasola auricoma (Pat.) Redhead, Vilgalys & Hopple. First Nature. https://www.first-nature.com/fungi/parasola-auricoma.php

Kuo, M. (2011, June). Parasola auricoma. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/parasola_auricoma.html

Author: Mitch Roth
Date Posted: 09-17-2018



Ustilago maydis

Ustilago maydis (DeCandolle) Corda is a biotrophic pathogen of corn (Zea mays). It is called “common smut” of corn because it is quite common throughout North America, though it is more commonly found in dry conditions. Other Ustilago spp. cause smut on other plants, but U. maydis is the only species that causes smut on corn, and this host specificity makes it easy to identify the fungus to the species level. The fungus has an interesting life cycle containing dikaryotic and haploid stages. The white “blisters” often seen on a developing corn cob (Fig. 1) are actually tumor-like galls produced by the fungus, containing many black teliospores.

Figure 1. Corn field (left) harboring many cobs infected with Ustilago maydis (right).

 

As the gall matures, the fleshy surface begins to break down, releasing the teliospores that can be spread through wind, contact with humans and animals, or surfaces of field equipment. The teliospores are circular,  dark-brown to black, and echinulate, or “decorated with many spines” (Fig. 2). These teliospores are used for overwintering. They are diploid, but germinate and develop a short hyphal tip that can produce many haploid basidiospores. These haploid basidiospores can fuse to form a dikaryon, which then proceeds to form an appressorium that can infect living corn tissue. It is seemingly most effective at invading rapidly growing corn tissues, such as fertilized corn cob silks and ovaries, resulting in smut commonly found on developing kernels. Though culinary appeal of the fungus may be debatable, the fungus is edible and is considered to be a delicacy to some Latino cultures, known by the name “huitlacoche”. The genome for Ustilago maydis was sequenced in 2006 and is a model organism for studying biotrophic plant-fungal pathogenic interactions.

Figure 2. Round, dark brown-black, echinulate teliospores from erupting U. maydis galls.

Phylum: Basidiomycota
Class: Ustilaginomycetes
Order: Ustilaginales
Family: Ustilaginaceae
Genus: Ustilago
Species: maydis
Collection Number: PLP847_2018_99

References:
Kämper, J. et al. 2006. Insights from the genome of the biotrophic fungal plant pathogen Ustilago maydis. Nature. 444:97-101. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05248
Pataky, J. K., and K. M. Snetselaar. 2006. Common smut of corn. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI:10.1094/PHI-I-2006-0927-01
Brefort, T. et al. 2009. Ustilago maydis as a Pathogen. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 47:423-445. doi: 10.1146/annurev-phyto-080508-081923

Author: Mitch Roth
Date Posted: 09-17-2018



Hypomyces lactifluorum

Hypomyces lactifluorum (Schweinitz) Tulasne and C. Tulasne

Ecology and Morphology: Hypomyces lactifluorum is a mycoparasite on select Lactarius and Russula species growing amidst both conifers and hardwoods and can most often be found in the summer and fall months. This fungus will completely cover its host with orange perithecia, giving it a rough, warty appearance and texture. The parasitized mushroom fruiting body, when thoroughly engulfed by this mycoparasite will be firm, fairly hard, and somewhat brittle. Spore deposits from the parasite are white, while the ascospores themselves are hyaline when viewed under a compound microscope. Ascospores are spindle-shaped and measure roughly 35 x 43 x 6-7.5 µm.

Taxonomy:

Kingdom:        Fungi

Division:         Ascomycota

Class:             Sordariomycetes

Order:             Hypocreales

Family:            Hypocreaceae

Genus:             Hypomyces

Species:           H. lactifluorum

 

Figure 1. Hypomyces lactifluorum (PLP847_2018_200). H. lactifluorum parasitizing a large Lactarius spp. fruiting body growing in leaf litter on the floor of a hardwood forest. (left). The underside of the mushroom, showing even more of the warty texture of this mycoparasite (right).

Figure 2. Hypomyces lactifluorum (PLP847_2018_200). The warty texture and color of the orange perithecia covering the surface of the parasitized mushroom (A). The white spore deposit produced from H. lactifluorum (B). A broken perithecium (orange portion) with exposed asci (C). Spindle shaped ascospores contained within the long, slender asci (D).

Figure 3. The hardwood forest environment in which this mushroom was found and which is a typical habitat for H. lactifluorum.

 

References:

Kuo, M., & Methven, A. S. (2014). Mushrooms of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press.

Kuo, M. (2003, January). Hypomyces lactifluorum: The lobster mushroom. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/hypomyces_lactifluorum.html

Volk, T. (2001). Tom Volk’s Fungus of the Month for August 2001. University of Wisconsin La-Crosse. Retrieved from Tom Volk’s fungus of the month: https://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/aug2001.html

Wood, M., & Stevens, F. (2017). California Fungi—Hypomyces lactifluorum. The Fungi of California. Retrieved from Mycoweb.co: http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/species/Hypomyces_lactifluorum.html

 

 

Author: Sara Getson
Date Posted: 09-16-2018



Exsudoporus frostii (J.L. Russell) Vizzini, Simonini & Gelardi

bolete_pic1

Figure 1. Exsudoporus frostii (PLP847_2018_185) fruiting bodies with red caps, deep and raised reticulation on stalks (left picture). Characteristic of the Exsudoporus genus, golden to yellow drops exude from the underside of fresh specimens (right picture).

Exsudoporus frostii (J.L. Russell) Vizzini, Simonini & Gelardi (Basidiomycota, Boletaceae) is a conspicuous bolete found in broadleaf or mixed forest throughout the eastern United States. Mature fruiting bodies (summer and fall) produce notable blood-red to apple-red caps, deeply reticulated stalks and dark red pores that when fresh ooze golden droplets (Fig. 1).  The pileus is convex to nearly plane with age, 5-15 cm wide and often with a lighter yellow margin. Chemical spot tests stain the cap bright orange KOH (Fig. 2) and yellow NH4OH. Tubes stain dark blue to black when cut and extend 6-15 mm deep (Fig. 2). Basidiospores are 11-17 µm by 4-5 µm, subfusiform to ellipsoidial, smooth and pale brown in color (Fig. 2). The stipe is 4-12 cm long and 1 – 2.5 cm wide, slowly stains blue and lacks a partial veil and annulus (Fig. 2). Prominent reticulation is continuous over the entire stipe and the stipe is red and sometime yellow at the base. The raised reticulation and dark red cap E. frostii help to distinguish it from less-prominent reticulation and lighter colored cap of E. floridanus.

bolete_2

Figure 2. Exsudoporus frostii (PLP847_2018_185) stipe and tubes rapidly stain blue after being cut (top and bottom, left). Chemical spot test stains the cap bright orange in KOH (top right). Basidiospores subfusiform, smooth and pale brown in color (bottom right).

Other comments: In the genus name, ‘exsudo’ is latin for “to come out in sweat, exude”. Thus, the genus Exsudoporus is aptly comprised of three species (E. frostii, E. floridanus and E. russellii) that exude “sweat” through their pores, when they are young, in the form of golden to yellow droplets. Further, the species name ‘frostii’ is reported homage to Charles C. Frost (1805 to 1880) the “shoe maker botanist”. Frost cobbled shoes for 49 years (started at age 15) in Battleboro, VT. He became a mycologist under his doctor’s orders that (for treatment of severe heartburn), “he devote an hour each morning and an hour each afternoon to the observation and study of plants in the fields”. Between 1845 and 1875, Frost cataloged numerous New England fungi. He had 60 first reports, 40 of which were boletes and gill-fungi, and all the while maintaining his full-time vocation as a shoe maker.

Taxonomy: Basidiomycota, Agaricomycetes, Boletales, Boletaceae, Exsudoporus, frostii

References:

Syn = Boletellus frostii J.L. Russell

Bessette, A.E., Roody, W.C. and Bessette, A.R. 2000. North American boletes: a color guide to the fleshy pored mushrooms. Syracuse University, Press, Syracuse, NY.

Bessette, A.E., Roody, W.C. and Bessette, A.R. 2016. Boletes of eastern North America. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY.

Murrill, W.A. 1908. Notes on the life and work of Charles C. Frost. Torreya, 8(8), 197-200.

Simpson, D.P. 1977. Cassell’s Latin Dictionary: Latin-English, English-Latin. Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc., New York, NY.

Vizzini, A. 2014. Nomenclatural novelties. Index Fungorum, 183.

Author: Doug Higgins
Date Posted: 09-11-2018



Cladonia macilenta Hoff. (syn. C. bacillaris Nyl.)

Habitat Picture

Figure 1. Cladonia macilenta (PLP847_2018_186) found on dead wood in a northern dry pine forest in Michigan’s upper peninsula (Luce County).

Cladonia macilenta Hoff. (Ascomycota, Cladoniaceae) is a widely distributed fruticose lichen found primarily on dead wood and tree bases, but occasionally over soil and rocks (Fig. 1). The species has a twofold thallus. The primary thallus is squamulose (separate or overlapping scales). Light-brown, erect and stalk-like podetia (4 to 35 mm in length) arise from the primary thalli (Fig. 2A). Typical of the Cladoniaceae family podetia are hollow (Fig. 2B). In C. macilenta podetia are also sorediate (responsible for their green appearance), rarely branched, do not form cups and have sporadic squamules.  Lichens are symbiotic associations between fungi (ascomycete) and algae or cyanobacteria. In the case of C. macilenta, its photobiont is a green alga. Green algae cells are intertangled in fungal hyphae to form globose, farinose soredia nearly continuous over the entire podetia and uniform in size (Fig. 2C). Apothecia are rare. Instead, soredia serve as the primary vegetative propagule.

Micro - characteristics

Figure 2. Cladonia macilenta (PLP847_2018_186) podetia arising from squamulose primary thalli (A). A hollow podetium, typical characteristic of the Cladoniaceae family (B). Powdery, globose bundles of hyphae and green algae (soredia) covering the podetia (C).

Other comments: Reported to occasionally contain usnic acid. Usinc acid is a secondary metabolite unique to lichens with potential commercial application in the fields of cosmetics, medical, perfumery and nutrient supplements. Also, chemical spot tests for the specimen presented here (PLP847_2018_186) were PD – (para-phenylenediamine) and K -(potassium hydroxide). Two chemical races of C. macilenta are often described. The first chemical race is PD-, K-, C – (sodium hypochlorite) and KC + yellow to orange, and is sometimes reported as C. bacillaris. While, the second chemical race is PD+ orange, K + yellow, KC-, and C-.

 

Taxonomy: Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes, Lecanorales, Caldoniaceae, Cladonia, macilenta.

 

Reference:

Brodo, I. M. 2016. Keys to lichens of North America: revised and expanded. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Brodo, I. M., Sharnoff, S. D., and Sharnoff, S. 2001. Lichens of north America. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Ingolfsdottir, K. 2002. Usnic acid. Phytochemistry 61:729-736.

Author: Doug Higgins
Date Posted: 09-09-2018



Collections Blog

  • Macroscopic (field photos) of fungus & habitat
  • Species ID & Collection number
  • Microscopic image (spores, any other key characters)
  • Habitat description
  • Phylogeny & taxonomy
  • Macroscopic characters
  • Microscopic characters 
  • Chemical reactions
  • Ecology
  • Other notes
  • Citations & Relevant literature 
Author: Admin1
Date Posted: 08-24-2018



Astraeus hygrometricus

Astraeus hygrometricus is commonly known as the hygroscopic earthstar or the false earthstar.

 

Ecology: Commonly found in open or disturbed areas in woodlands; scattered to gregarious. Fruits from late fall to mid-winter but persisting in good condition for up to a year.  Not edible. Distributed in America and Europe.

Morphology

Fruit body: 1–5cm broad, round, outer wall gray to bown, exoperidium splitting into 6–15 pointed rays thick, leathery, the inner surface cracked, grey to brown becoming hard and leather-like when dry.

Spore sac: 1–3cm broad, globose, buf-brown pallid to dark greyish, thin and papery opening by a slit or tear forming an irregular pore. Gleba at first white and cocoa-brown at maturity.

Spores: brown, globose and finely warted, 7–10.5µ in diameter.

 

 

Sources:

The Fungi of California. Copyright © 1997-2016 Michael Wood & Fred Stevens. A MykoWeb Page: http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/species/Astraeus_hygrometricus.html

 

Rogers Plants Ltd. © 2001-2016 All rights reserved. http://www.rogersmushrooms.com/gallery/DisplayBlock~bid~5578~gid~~source~gallerydefault.asp

Author: Viviana Ortiz
Date Posted: 12-27-2016



Trametes hirsuta

 

Ecology: Saprobic on the deadwood of hardwoods (very rarely reported on conifer wood); annual; causing a white rot; growing in clusters on logs and stumps; summer and fall; widely distributed across North America.

 

Morphology

 

Cap: Up to 10 cm across and 6 cm deep; semicircular, irregularly bracket-shaped, or kidney-shaped; often fusing laterally with other caps; very densely hairy; often finely, radially furrowed; with concentric zones of texture; zones with gray, whitish, and brownish shades, but usually not contrasting markedly; margin often brownish to brown or blackish.

 

Pore Surface: Whitish, becoming a little brownish, grayish, or yellowish with age; with 3-4 circular to angular pores per mm; tubes with fairly thick walls, to 6 mm deep.

 

 

Flesh: Insubstantial; whitish; tough and corky.

 

Chemical Reactions: KOH on flesh negative to dull yellow.

 

Spore Print: White.

 

Microscopic features: Spores 6-9 x 2-2.5 µ; smooth; cylindric; inamyloid. Cystidia absent. Hyphal system trimitic.

 

 

Source:

Kuo, M. (2010, March). Trametes hirsuta. Retrieved from the MushroomExpert.Com Web site: http://www.mushroomexpert.com/trametes_hirsuta.html

Author: Viviana Ortiz
Date Posted: 12-27-2016



Chlorophyllum rhacodes

 

Ecology: Saprobic; typically growing in troops or fairy rings in disturbed-ground areas like roadsides, gardens, and the edges of fields. Often near conifers. C. rhacodes fruits in fall and it is widely distributed.

 

Morphology

Cap: 5-20 cm; dry; convex to nearly round when young, becoming flat or very broadly bell-shaped; at first bald and brownish but soon breaking up so that the center remains smooth (or cracked) and brown, but the rest of the surface consists of shaggy scales with brownish tips over a whitish background.

 

Gills: Free from the stem; close; white or when mature pale brownish

Stem: 10-20 cm long, 1-3 cm thick; with a bulbous base that sometimes has a prominent rim at the top of the bulb; bald; white, bruising and discoloring brownish; with a high, double-edged, moveable ring.

Flesh: Whitish throughout, but typically turning pinkish orange, then slowly brownish when sliced; thick.

Spore print: White.

Microscopic features: Spores 6-13 x 5-9 um; smooth; ellipsoid; dextrinoid and with a small pore. Cheilocystidia broadly clavate to clavate.

 

 

Source:

Kuo, M., & Methven, A. S. (2014). Mushrooms of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press.

Author: Viviana Ortiz
Date Posted: 12-27-2016



Stropharia rugosoannulata

Stropharia rugosoannulata collected in Michigan State University gardens.

Ecology and relevance to society: Saprobic, often growing scattered (sometimes in clusters) on wood chips, in gardens and in other cultivated areas. S. rugosoannulata fruits in spring through fall and it is widely distributed. The wine capped form is edible and good, however, edibility for the white form is not reliable documented.

Morphology

Cap: 4-15 cm; convex or broadly convex to flat; sticky when fresh,  but often dry when collected, sometimes developing cracks in old age. Color is wine red to reddish brown, whitish throughout development.

 

Gills: Attached to the stem; whitish to pale gray at first, becoming purplish gray to purple black.

 

Stem: 7-15 cm long. 1-3 cm thick; dry; equal or with an enlarged base, bald or finely hairy; white discoloring yellowish to brownish in age. A characteristic feature is the presence of a thick ring that is finely grooved on its upper surface (and often blackened by spores) and radially split on its underside .

Spore print: Dak purple brown to blackish

 

Microscopic features: Spores 10-14 x 6-9 um; smooth and broadly ellipsoid. Chrysocystidia present.

Chemical reactions: KOH olive green on cap of red form and yellow on cap of white form.

Source:

Kuo, M., & Methven, A. S. (2014). Mushrooms of the Midwest. University of Illinois Press.

 

 

Author: Viviana Ortiz
Date Posted: 12-16-2016



Phallus rubicundus

 

Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Phallales
Family: Phallaceae
Genus: Phallus
Species: P. rubicundus

 

Phallus species are fungi commonly known as stinkhorn. They were first mentioned by a Dutch botanist Hadrianus Junius (1511–1575), in 1564. He wrote a short book describing them, and emphasized he was not convinced that the mushroom was a fungi species. Phallus rubicundus is a species found in Africa, Asia, South America, and North America, and it is very commonly found in gardens, lawns, and yards, in areas where rotten wood and mulch are present. It was first described in 1811, by French botanist Louis Augustin Guillaume Bosc, who formally described it under the name Stayrus rubicundus. In 1823, it was transferred to the genus Phallus, and given the binomial name Phallus rubicundus, by Elias Fries. It received this name because of its phallic appearance when mature, and its red color. Another characteristic of this fungus is its foul odor, which attracts insects and makes them the most important way of spores dispersal. They can be smelled from long distances, even when they are only emerging.

Stinkhorns emerge from a 25mm in diameter underground egg. Initially it stands erct, but it rapidily shrivels and sags. The stem is orange-pinkish and its cap is spherical to egg-shaped, its fruit body is about 20cm tall, up to 1.5 cm thick, and it is covered with a smelly olive brown fleshy spore bearing inner mass.

They can be easily confused with Mutinus elegans, but they have a distinctly separated cap that distinguishes them from Mutinus spp.

 

Young Phallus rubicans found in the gardens of MSU.

Young Phallus rubicundus found in the gardens of MSU.

Mature Phallus rubicundus outside of PSM building, at MSU

http://www.mushroomexpert.com/phallus_rubicundus.html

https://www.messiah.edu/Oakes/fungi_on_wood/stinkhorn/species%20pages/Phallus%20rubicundus.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phallus_rubicundus

Author: Jacque Gleason
Date Posted: 12-16-2016